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It was Ducker (970:80) who stated that the principle objectives of any organization is survival and from this all other objective flow. Thus, if a profit is needed for survival profits is the objective, if survival depends on growth, their growth becomes an objective etc.

In pursuit of this survival there exist certain differences between the ends and means of the organization on one hand, and the goals and values of the individual employees on the other. These difference sometimes generate tension, which tends to focuses on the nebulous concepts of control. That means that the control human element in the enterprise. 

Controlling of human performances is safety focused upon three separately identified functions.

Selection, supervision and incentives.  Against this background, it is part of the personnel manager’s concern to secure the labour force which the enterprises / organization required to meet its objectives. Different method been established to help make this more reliable. Once secured, there remains the need to cannot (supervision and incentive) in order to hold the selected employees to the appropriate causes of action indicated by those objectives supervision and incentive depends on their efficacy and fairness, on the ability of the organization to measures the performance of employees against some notional nouns of performance, which are derived from the set objectives.

The knowledge and appreciation of performance appraisal system dates back to sometime in the sixteenth century at the time of saint ignatus of Loyola after he had founded the society of Jesuit. In his attempt to provide a comprehensive portrait of Jesuits activities and potentials, he used the combination of reporting and rating systems. By this system, each member of the organization made a safe rating, each supervisor prepared reports on his subordinates, performances and also special report was sent directly to the society’s father-general from any Jesuit who had information relating to his on her colleagues performance which he / she thought father general might not receive.

In 1842, the USA congress passed a law requiring the Departmental heads to make annual reports stating among other things whether each clerk has been carefully employed and the removal of some to permit the appointment of other would lead to a better dispatch of the public business of course, this step did influence performance appraisal. Among many appraisal systems that were developed and tried at that time was the one by Carl Scharz for the pension office in 1987, which was used to measure employee performance by simply counting the number of errors, they made in a year.

Performance Appraisal is a continuous assessment of the subordinate’s performance against the organizational goals. Defined by Evinma C., Nwandu E. Nnenna B. Ani and Ojemba B. Agbo (2003) as the name given to the regular formalized and record review of the way in which an individual is performing his job. There are formal or conventional appraisal system and informal or unconventional system.

In any situation where an organization has laid down policy on a formal procedure to be followed in appraising its staff, conventional appraisal system is used. It could be the confidential reporting or an open appraisal system.

The confidential reporting system is one in which the supervisor makes a secret evaluation of the subordinate’s performance without giving them the opportunity of seeing their comments, or remarks that has been made on him / her. This system has received a lot of criticism because of its pitfalls. Nonetheless some organizations make use of this system and exploit it’s potentials depending on the situations.

The open report system is the direct opposite of the confidential system. It applies in a situation where the employee is allowed to be through his / her appraisal form so as to make some comments on his / her supervisor’s assessment. By doing this, the employee knows on the sport his / her supervisor’s opinions or impressions about his / her performance. This system ahs received the recommendation of many writers and authors including the celebrated, “Udoji Public Service Review Commission of 1972-1974.

The importance of performance appraisal program especially at this era of emphasis on productivity, efficiency and profitability is that it is a potential instrument for achieving organizational objectives as well as helping the individuals within the organization to achieve their personal objectives, therefore a formal system.   


It is truism to say that the personnel function must be consistent with those of the enterprise it serves. It is also a truism to say that enemy one in the organization is a personnel man. The hopes, aspirations, fear, problems and apathy’s, actions, balances, creativity and innovativeness of people determine the ultimate success or failure of the business. It suffices to say that every manger in the organization takes actions everyday or most of the times which affect the people. Thus, the may create or avoid problem, support or suppress creativity or inspire or frustrate his portion of the longer human organization. It becomes even, cleaver when considered from the point of view of the performance of his subordinate.

To that extent problems could be created or avoided, creativity could be supported or suppressed depending on the performance appraisal system, adopted by the enterprise – particularly for its junior staff. At one time we may hear the news of the firing of the junior staff of the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA). At the other time we hear the news of hiring of he junior staff of the same authority. Even thought the appraisal system adopted by the authority is sound as it encompasses all facets that is expected, but still there are some lop holes that gives room for manipulation, which at the end does not really expose those silent point, that is required to asses the employee as supposed. So, the researcher figured that since termination, employment, promotions, demotions, and motivation co-hinge on performance of its junior staff. We therefore need to analyze the performance appraisal systems of the junior staff of NEPA to be able to come out with a conclusion as to its efficacies or otherwise.

In other words, performance appraisal systems of the junior staff of NEPA have been traced as the problem, which this research work has been assigned to look into. 

The research work intends to test the following question below:

1)   What is the nature of performance appraisal system obtainable sin NEPA as a public organization as it affects the junior staff?

2) How efficient is the system adopted by NEPA in appraisal the performance of it’s junior staff.

3) What are the effects of the performance appraisal system on promotion and demotion, termination and dismissal of junior staff of NEPA.

4)  Are there other ways to improve on the organization’s performance appraisal technique as it effects the junior staff?


This research study has set for itself the objective of analyzing the performance appraisal system of junior staff of NEPA specifically the study seeks. 

1)   To determine the efficiency of the system adopted in appraising the performance of its junior workers.

2) To find out the effect of performance appraisal staff on promotion and demotion of junior staff of NEPA.

3)   To find out the effect of performance appraisal system on promotion, employment, termination and dismissal of junior staff.

4)  To make recommendation where necessary to enable NEPA adopt a refined / standard performance appraisal system in appraising the performance of its junior staff


The following null hypothesis are hereby generated for this study.

Ho: There is no significant difference in the nature of performance appraisal system obtainable in NEPA as a public Organization as it affects the junior staff.

Hi: There is no significant difference in the nature of performance appraisal system as it is obtainable in NEPA as it affects the junior staff of NEPA.

Ho: There is no significant difference on the influence of performance appraisal on the junior staff of NEPA.

Hi: There is no significant difference on the influence of performance appraisal on the junior staff of NEPA.

Ho: The promotion and demotion, termination and dismissal is not determined on performance appraisal system on the junior staff of NEPA.

Hi: The promotion and demotion, termination and dismissal is  determined on performance appraisal system on the junior staff of NEPA.

Ho: There no significant different of efficient in the system adopted by NEPA in apprising the performance appraisal system of it’s junior staff.

Hi: There is significant different of efficient in the system adopted by NEPA in apprising the performance appraisal system of it’s junior staff.

Ho: The improvement on the organization’s performance appraisal technique is not dependent on the management of NEPA.

Hi: The improvement on the organization’s performance appraisal technique is dependent on the management of NEPA.


1)    A study of this nature obviously is meant to contribute meaningfully to vast areas of human endeavour, besides it is significance at least to the extent that tot his researcher, it is going to serve as a partial fulfillment of the total requirement for the award or ordinary national Diploma (OND) degree of the institute of Management and Technology, Enugu (IMT).

2)   The study is significant to researcher who may find this study useful to their various studies.

3)  The organization’s managers may find this study relevant to their organization, especially in relation to the assessment of the junior staff.

4)  To organization policy formulators, this study could be useful when formulating personnel management policy. To this end, the result of this research could be a guide in the areas of performance appraisal system of junior staff.

5)   This study is and could be useful to NEPA management who may discover areas of conflict and be in a position to remedy them.

6)   The junior staff of NEPA and other organization could find the result of this study useful in the sense that they could agitate for its adoption or rejection by the management of their organization.

7)  The labour movement could find this research a reference material for their negotiations with management. The system could be of use to both junior staff and their supervisors to improve performance through appraisal system.

1.6            SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Based on the fact that NEPA operates a uniform appraisal method nationwide, the other substation and pay offices sent their appraisal to the district office nearest them where they are determined, the researcher decide to limit the scope of this study to NEPA district office atOkpara Avenue.

Therefore, the researcher liased with the various department of NEPA in Enugu District office to obtain the relevant primary data for this research work. The researcher also studied all categories of workers in NEPA since all are evaluated.


Like every human endeavor there must be some limiting factors, which affected this study.

The first was finance, because of the large volume of material needed for a satisfactory conduct of a research of this nature. It will take quite a big chunk of money to sources these materials including visiting virtually, all NEPA zones and districts to ascertain the uniformity on otherwise of their appraisal systems.

Secondly, at first, it would appear as if one could not have problem with sourcing materials, but when the chips are down, one discovers that it is not easy to find relevant material for the study.

Thirdly, some staff or personnel of NEPA were reluctant to release certain information relating to performance appraisal system of release certain information relating to performance appraisal system of the organization claiming them to be classified information.

Fourthly, ignorance on the part of some junior staff who could not understand the essences of the appraisal of their performance some see it as a routine thing. Others wouldn’t even want tot know the implications of the appraisal system. Too this category of staff getting their cooperation was deficient.

 1.8            DEFINITION OF TERMS

APPRAISAL: For the purpose of this study, this researcher has decided to use the term Appraisal to men measurement, assessment, evaluation, etc. of performance of the workers.

NEPA: NEPA is the short form or the abbreviation of “National Electric Power Authority.

NDA: This is the abbreviation of the term “Niger Merged with ECN to become NEPA.

ECN: This is the short term or the abbreviation for “Electricity Corporation of Nigeria of Nigeria”.

ORGANIZATION: The term is used to embrace every business organization at whatever level. In other words, it represents enterprises, business, private or public outfit or firm as the case may be.

SYSTEM: System here represents the type, methods, approach, etc. in the case of appraisal system used here, it means appraisal methods, types and approach.

THE RATER: The term refers to the person who reviews the performance of the subordinate periodically. This term will be interchangeable with the terms like supervisor, superior, manger and appraiser.

THE SUBORDINATE: This refers to the employee whose performance is being evaluated. It can also referred to as individual worker.


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