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Chapter one Introduction 1.1 Background of the study Over the past five decades, Nigeria has been governed by both democratic and non-democratic governments. The Nigerian military’s incursion into politics in the country had been premised on the failure of previous democratic governments to initiate, foster and sustain development programs that could have brought about social and economic development. However, the military regimes that had ruled the Nigerian state for about 30 out of its 54 years as independent nation-state has also failed, on the most part, to establish the much expected social and economic development. Socio-economic development; in terms of improvement in the living standards of the citizenry, is perhaps the basic expectation and reward for the citizens in the social contract agreement between the governors and the governed. The spectre of underdevelopment has loomed large over most of sub-Sahara Africa and especially Nigeria since time immemorial. The cancerous consequences of underdevelopment assume deeply rooted sociological features that are manifested in a seemingly closed cycle of cause and effect relations. Of such features, corruption and insecurity are perhaps the two most salient and therefore arguably primary causes of underdevelopment in the country. Underdevelopment is itself a multi-faceted concept whose definition has courted both attention and controversy among scholars. The merriam-webster online dictionary takes a more macro-economic view by defining underdevelopment simply in terms of a state‟s low production capabilities and low standard of living, relative to other states Webster dictionary. However, the implications of the term are far less simplistic in academic and political literature. Euler-Chelpin (2011) acknowledges the difficulties in attempting to reduce underdevelopment to a single analyzable concept. He notes that in the aftermath of the second world war, economic growth was largely considered the yard-stick by which development/underdevelopment was determined, and this was indicated by a State’s gross national product (GNP). However, GNP fell out of fashion once it was realized it did not reflect the real status of individuals and their overall well-being, a realization that led to the creation of the human development index (HDI). The HDI would seem a more accurate reflection of development because it takes a more people-centered approach to measuring development. Costanza, Hart, Posner, and Talberth (2009) defined states‟ development in terms of democracy, life expectancy, education, social infrastructure and standard of living. Whatever the case, Nigeria is generally considered a “developing country”, a term that amounts to a mere euphemism for “underdeveloped countries”. According to the united nations‟ HDI statistics for the year 2013, of the 187 countries with available data, Nigeria was placed at 152 for human development.4 Nigeria struggles with micro-economic measurements of success despite excelling under macro-economic microscopes. Despite boasting africa‟s largest economy, at least in terms of GDP at purchasing power parity, Nigerians still rank among the world‟s poorest people with the country itself among the most underdeveloped. Corruption and insecurity are two challenges that continue to hinder social and economic progress in Nigeria. Both challenges pre-date the country as an independent political entity, and have continued to fester on the country ever-since. In 2014, transparency international ranked Nigeria 136 out of 175 countries in the World for corruption, basically classed among the 30 most corrupt countries in the world.5 Moreover, Nigeria is also considered one of the most dangerous countries in the world. According to the institute for economics and peace‟s global peace index report for 2015, Nigeria is ranked as the twelfth most dangerous country in the world, coming in at 151 out of the 162 assessed countries.6 Evidently, corruption and insecurity are two grievous challenges that Nigeria must imminently overcome, any analysis of underdevelopment in Nigeria or even the wider west-africa, that leaves out the economic consequences of insecurity and corruption is decidedly misleading and could never reveal the full picture of the challenges that beset these countries. This is especially true of Nigeria, where state employees continue to loot the public treasury with impunity, the public system lacks both accountability and credibility, and insecurity is an established norm. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The Nigeria nation is beclouded by the menace of under-development. This has resulted to economic hardship and social miscarriages on the citizenry. “Nigeria are having rough time, there is uncontrollable inflation, there is retrenchment, unemployment, factory closure caused by drastic deform in investment and divestments. Moreso, there is a sharp decline in the purchasing power and value of the naira, coupes of social service, low capacity utilization of industries and jobs security Nigerians are leaving below poverty line. Nigeria’s position as an under-developed nation has not changed even with flow of money from oil (Ikejani Clark 1995:132) The above have become a bone of contention. The researcher hence intends to find out why under-development has persisted so many years after un-dependence in the presence of abundant human and material resources available to the government. Also with standing that Nigeria has series of leaders and leadership positions both civilian. The researcher through this project intends to put forwards the contribution of socio economic factors to the under-development of Nigeria. It stands to prove the importance and the indispensable of the political leadership on proffering solution to under-development of Nigeria. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the effect of Corruption and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics? 2. What is the effect of insecurity and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics? 3. What is the effect of Godfatherism and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics? 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To examine the effect of corruption and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics 2. To examine the effect of insecurity and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics 3. To examine the effect of Godfatherism and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics 1.5 HYPOTHESIS 1. There is no significant effect of Corruption and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics 2. There is no significant of insecurity and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics 3. There is no significant effect of Godfatherism and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Politics 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of this study can be viewed from the following perspectives. One main significance of this study is that when completed, it would serve as a bridge for the gap that have been created between where previous works on this subject area stopped and today. This study is significant in the sense that it’s finding would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study. The government would benefit from this study in view of the fact that they would learn about factors contributing to the underdevelopment of Nigerian politics and possible ways to redeem the image of Nigerian politics at the global scene. The outcome of this research is hoped to be of immense use to students of politics and human behavour since it contains information on socioeconomic factors contributing to the underdevelopment of Nigerian politics 1.7 Scope of the Study The study was delimited to socio economic factors contributing to underdevelopment in Nigeria politics using Uyo metropolis of Akwa Ibom State as a study area. 1.8 Limitation of the Study