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Impact of Refuge Crisis on Human Secuirty in Adamwa State

Chapter One Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study Countless no of persons over the centuries have emigrated against their will because of conflicazts as well as persecution by oppressive governments or majority groups. In the politically, economically and socially unstable climate of the twentieth century, refugee immigration has reached endemic proportions. Consequently, receiving or host nations are challenged with refugee presence with regards to hosting, feeding, sheltering, educating, employing as well as identifying and utilizing their human resource potential. In the effort to host refugees, many host communities face various forms of socioeconomic challenges as well as benefit from refugee human resource. Lack or insufficient knowledge of immigrants’ situations in host communities has the potential of giving rise to unfounded opinions as well as presumptions in public debates on immigration issues. Greater knowledge of diverse immigrations issues can bring about a greater understanding between refugee immigrants and their hosts. Lack of knowledge on refugee issues or refugee situations becomes a bane on politicians or policy makers when making important decisions that concerns the implications of refugee situations for the host communities. Most refugee situations are found in the world’s poorest regions especially, Africa. The magnitude of the refugee crisis in the developing world therefore, ought to be appreciated in the context of the appalling socio-economic conditions in most receiving countries. The situation could be described as the poorest people in the world knocking on the door of the poorest countries. The situation might be different in various localities in a host country depending on the level of development of the locality in question. Refuge situations might be different in European countries for example in the context of the ability to receive and host refugees and hence the appreciation of refugees socioeconomic efforts. However, Gomet, (2001) assert that refugee crisis can refer to movements of large groups of displaced people, who could be either internally displaced persons, refugees or other migrants. It can also refer to incidents in the country of origin or departure, to large problems whilst on the move or even after arrival in a safe country that involve large groups of displaced persons, asylum seekers or refugees. According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, in 2017, 65.6 million people were forcibly displaced worldwide because of persecution, conflict, violence, or human rights violations alone. 1.2. Statement of the Problem The refugee problem in Nigeria is one of the most acute of this continent and one of the most acute in the world. Most of these problems have become protracted refugee situations. This is because; the armed conflicts which originally forced people to leave their own country have dragged on for many years, making it impossible for them to return to their homeland. In many instances these refugees and refugees are being hosted by poor countries such as Nigeria which lack adequate resources, infrastructure and facilities to accommodate them. The economies of these countries have deteriorated drastically and are today characterized by rapid declining in agricultural production, serious problems in social services, increased costs of essential goods and risen unemployment. The UNHCR (1997) acknowledged some of the problems and threats faced by refugee-host countries and stated that “Now, more than ever before, African host governments are arguing that refugees present serious security, environmental as well as economic threats, and that they can no longer afford to keep their borders open or to allow refugees to remain for a lengthy of time”. The insurgency crisis in Adamawa State drove millions of people from their homes and forced them into drifting life, as refugees and displaced persons deprived of their means of livelihood, human dignity and hope. In Ghana, the Liberian refugees continue to live in a refugee camp. The recent Fulani herdsmen and farmers clashes has also driven huge population to state seeking asylum. Forced immigrant implications for host communities are diverse. These implications on the host communities should be considered in terms of host country’s economies, local resources, human security, facilities and services among others. The refugee problem is often further worsened as it increases the population of the host communities with relative scarcity of land for cultivation. It is in the light of this that refugees are often regarded as socio-economic and environmental burden on the communities that host them. 1.3. Objectives of the Study 1. To examine the relationship between homelessness and human security in Adamawa state 2. To examine the relationship between scarcity of home and human security in Adamwa State 3. To examine the relationship between health threat on human security in Adamawa State 1.4. Research questions 1. What is the relationship between homelessness and human security in Adamawa state? 2. What is the relationship between scarcity of home and human security in Adamwa State? 3. What is the relationship between health threat crisis on human security in Adamawa State? 1.5. Statement of the hypothesis 1. There is no significant relationship between homelessness and human security in Adamawa state. 2. There is no significant relationship between scarcity of food and human security in Adamwa State. 3. There is no significant relationship between health threat on human security in Adamawa State. 1.6 Significance of the study The UN Organizations’ and other related agencies in Nigeria should find the results of this study a major interest in their endeavor to provide better humanitarian assistance to refugee communities and possibly establishing a provision for the host communities. Little has been researched on the impact of refugees on the host community especially in regard to African countries and Nigeria for that matter. 1.7. Justification of study Refugee camps are a major feature of today's refugee scene. Roughly one-half of the approximately seven million refugees in Africa are in some type of camp situation. The refugee problem is one of the problems being experienced by developing countries in Africa. It is a burden to the host community. While primary prevention would be the ultimate objective in the control of problems experienced by host community, this is not possible without sufficient intervention through education, information and communication to the refugees, the host community and the refugee agencies that these study has provided. This survey focusing on the problem of refugees crisis on human security in Adamawa State. The study was set to communicate these transformations to the society and people of different disciplines. Hence filling in the gap that exists in refugee studies. 1.8 Scope/Delimitation of the study The aim of the study was to examine the impact of refugee crisis on human security in Adamawa state. However, the scope and delimitation of the study was covers refugees camping in Adamawa State between. 1.7 Limitations of the Study In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include lack of interest of the respondents on the subject under study. Some of the respondents refused to fill the questionnaire, some collected without returning them, while some returned the questionnaire without filling it. Meanwhile, the researcher was able to overcome the challenges by educating the respondents on the subject under study, and also guided the respondents to supply the information needed, as well as being able to strive up the interest of the respondents. 1.9 Definition of terms Study