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Management is a social process entailing responsibilities for an effective planning and  regulations of operation of an enterprise in fulfillment of a given purpose on task.  Breach E.F.L (1975)

Management is essentially the process of defecting the efforts of other people usually subordinators in order to achieve a  specific objective it could be said to be “the art of getting thing done through other people” the basic managerial functions of directing controlling planning organizing  staffing motivating and coordinating all involve the display of organizational skills administrative task and personal initiative executive talent and dynamism on the part of the manager.

Delegation is an organizational process that permits the transfer for  authority from a superior to a subordinate the make commitments use resources to him. No organization can function effectively without delegation the derision of an organization into units e.g.  department involve delegation. Delegation originate from the fact that no-body can function alone successfully in an organizaiton.

In essence delegation of  authority means that a subordinate has the power to make decision and act within explicit limit without checking with the superiors. Delegation equally involves accountability.

 Delegation of authority  is an important administrative process of getting things done through other by sharing authority (or power) with them. In any typical organization by top management or any other approved body.

Delegation is an inescapable process in any organization big or small private or public. This is because no individual however talented and  accomplished can claim to have solution to all day-to day problems of the enterprise which he or she is involved  in the answer to those problem are best provided through efficient delegation. This is because these are the days of specialist.  Those specialist usually specialized in on of  organizational activities namely productive marketing personnel   accounting financial and  technical activities.  Indeed delegation is an attitudes. Of the mind and way of life of every goal seeking manager.

Delegation of authority enables quick decision to be made at all levels within the general policy framework laid down by the top management.  It lightens the burden of key officers in taking routine matters and enables them to concentrate on vital aspects of planning policy making and overall control thereby  ensuring administrative  convenience.  According Koontz and O’ Donnel “delegation is the due for efficient management and it determines how well one manages”

There are different group of people in an organization who are responsible for activities that contributes to the attainment of organizational goals.  These groups include top level management and other workers in he organization. The manager gives some limited resources determine the best way to utilize such resources optimally in order to activities some specified goals. It is through delegation of tasks that  a manager can get things done through his subordinates.  Delegation is the act of investing the subordinate with the authority to make decisions and carry out duties on task for which the manager is held responsible.  He is successful in getting things done through others is exercising the highest type of leadership. Without delegation managers action will be confirmed to what he can perform only.

In delegation task the manager should be able to recognize the special abilities and limitation of his subordinates.  This will help him to know which task to delegation to whom and why.  A wise manger who has the discretion to decide how many and which task to delegate should also know whom to delegate certain tasks to.

Finally delegation therefore means the granting of lights to subordinates to the prescribed areas.  As a result of delegation the subordinates receives authority from his superior at any time.

The  manager who makes masters the ant of delegating himself in a very good position because he can effectively discharge his duties. This is because he can have time to focus his attention on every important issues while those issues which are not very significant are handled by subordinates.

For effective delegation subordinates must understand the purpose of delegated function and the objective it intends to achieve.  If they are  able to relate this to the accomplishment of the over all company objectives and their own personal interest their performances is higher.

Duties assigned must be equal to the delegate. Fir there is an imbalances it results in frustration on the part of the supervisor as he seeks and fails to obtain the willing co-operation of his peers or subordinates.

For the employees to whom responsibility to be assigned and authority delegated must by judiciously selected.  Care must be taken to avoid employees who cannot accept criticism who lack confidence who are not easily   motivated.  The best manager is one who knows how much responsibility to delegate and hoe to be in control at all times.  Constant feedback is necessary in order to avert costly mistakes of  the subordinates.


The work that any subordinate does in an organization is mostly the job that he or she has been delegated to do by his or her supervisor in organizations today have many delegated tasks to perform.  So failure by managers can be due to poor or inefficient delegation.  A number of factors have led to this problems.

  1. The mangers may unconsciously adopt the “indispensable man theory” this means that he refuse to see that others can do something as well as he can and as such he regards himself as indispensable in his organization.
  2. Unwillingness to   let go of authority this may be due to the desire to dominate in all that they be due to the desire to dominate in all that they so.  Also it may be due to the fact that the manager feels he is indispensable to the organizaiton.
  3. Unwillingness to take calculated risks. When a manager does not have faith in the ability of a subordinate and fee that delegating task to such a subordinate may results in the performance of such task the manager will tend not to delegate.
  4. Unwillingness  to give other people’s idea a chance.  When innovative idea had been suggested to the manager he does give such idea a chance even though such ideas will be of benefits to operations of  the organizaiton.
  5. Unwillingness to establish and use broad control in the case under the manager is unwilling to establish and  use board controls delegation of task will not be effective.  This is because the managers want to closely monitor the performance of any  task delegated to subordinates.
  6. Lack of knowledge of how to delegate effectively. When a manager does not know how to delegate for fear that his weakness and short comings will be exposed in some organization the reaction to the problem has bee the complaint of those at the lower level of management that they are not being allowed to use their in genuity   and discretion to make decisions   


The purpose/ objective of this study is to examine the  practice of delegation of authority by managers and its effect in a  typical liegeman organization with a view

  1. Highlight the strategic importance of delegation
  2. highlight the problems faced by managers. In delegating effectively.
  3.   show how delegation of authority could be effectively


Unilever brothers PLC is a well established business and should be expected to provide fro assignment of work to all positions. Delegation within the context of such a firm will be with regard to the authority responsibility and accountability for subordinates.

This in this study we shall be concerned with the degree of authority responsibility and accountability existing in manger.  Subordinate relationship at Unilever Brothers (NIG) PLC Enugu State

It may not be possible to discover the degree in some area of the business such as top management level we shall therefore limit the study to the operating  areas of sales and production.  The production activities which middle level managers will have delegated to them normally will be scheduling ones. Similarly certain activities that middle managers handle are recruiting sales prospects and products presentation.  These and related activities will also be studies.


H0     Unavailability of information about the capabilities of the subordinate is

not related to the efficiency at delegation of tasks by mangers 

H1     Unavailability of information about the capabilities of the subordinate is

 related to  efficiency at delegation of tasks by mangers 

H0     Manager willingness to have faith in the ability of subordinates is not

related to their efficiency at delegating tasks to their subordinate  

H1     Manager willingness to have faith in the ability of subordinates is

related to their efficiency at delegating tasks to their subordinate

H0     There is no relationship between the efficiency of managers at

delegation of task the feeling of insecurity by the managers  

H1     There is no relationship between the efficiency of managers at

delegation of task the feeling of insecurity by the managers                                                                                   


Every organization is normally set up with the goal of success. The yardstick  measuring this success in a profit making organization will differ from that  which will be used to measure the success   in a non-profit making organization.  The  achievement of the organizational goals will depend to a large extend on the efficient and effective performance of the manager in  such organization.  Therefore the methods and the strategies adopted  by manager in  performing the task are very significant as this will determine the effectiveness of the manager.

Delegation is tool that when uses by managers can improve their effectiveness tremendously.  As a matter of fact delegation  authority is a way of life of every manager. Hence the significance of this study cannot be other emphasized 


For reasons of cost and time the study was limited to the main factory at Enugu which is also an administrative branch of Unilever Brothers Nigeria Plc


EFFECTIVENESS:      This is the ability to bring desired result

EFFICIENCY:    The ability to perform duties well at the least cost it should be noted that efficiency does not imply effectiveness but effective one must be efficient

RESPONSIBILITY:     This is the duty that any employee is obligated to fulfill while performing the job the responsibilities are presented by the activities to be performed communed with the standards for correct performances. 

AUTHORITY: The power or right to give orders and make others obey liability for the way in which obligations are discharged.

STRATEGY:      This is the skill in making an affairs it is also broad plan to achieve a good.

DOMINATE:      This is having control or influence over others by force of character

DELEGATE:      This is appointing and  sending a subordinate as a representative to a meeting or entrusting duties or rights to a subordinate 


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