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Entrepreneurship started when people began to produce more products than they required, as such they had to exchange these surplus with others who also wanted to dispose off their surplus. By this way, producers came to realize that they can concentrated in their areas of production to produce more and then exchange with what they needed. Therefore, through this exchange of products, entrepreneurship started.

According to Schumpeter (1961) Entrepreneurship means doing new things or doing  things that are already being done in a new way.

Nnenna B.Ani (1999) described entrepreneurship as a creative and innovative response to the environment such responses can take place in any field of social endavour, for instance, in business industry, agriculture, education, social work and the like.

An entrepreneur is different from a manager who only plans organizes and controls a business idea after it has been successfully initiated by the entrepreneur”Lawal A.A Et Al (1998), According to Ani Nnnenna B. (1999) a typically Nigeria entrepreneur is self made man who ,might be said to have strong will to succeed, he might engage the services of others like friends, mates, in laws etc to help him in his work or production through this way Nigerians in the olden days  were engaged in entrepreneurship”. Early entrepreneurship characterized with production or manufacturing in which case the producer most often started with a small capital, most of it from his own savings. Early entrepreneurship started with trade by barter even before the advent of any form of money.

In Nigerian modern entrepreneurship started with the coming of the Colonial masters, who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their  middlemen. Most of the modern entrepreneur were engaged in retail trade or sole proprietorship.

One of the major factors that has in many ways discouraged the flow of entrepreneurship development in this country is the value system brought about by formal education. For many decades formal education has been the preserve of the privilege. With formal education, people had the opportunity of being employed in civil service, because in those days the economy was large enough to absorb into the prestigious occupation all Nigerians with some form of formal education. The value system discouraged entrepreneurship  in Nigeria for the colonial masters to solve their goods, because if Nigerians continue to be enterprising, they would not have had market for their goods. as such, the system made Nigerians to be depends on the colonial masters to supply her with the needed products.

Again , the contract between Nigerian entrepreneurs and foreign entrepreneurs during the colonial era was very detrimental and the  competitive business strategy of the foreign entrepreneurs was ruinous and also against moral standards established by the society. For example, the united African company (UAO) that was responsible for a sustain percentage of the  import and export trade of Nigerian, has the policy of dealing directly with produced and refused to make use of the service of Nigeria entrepreneurs. The refusal of the expatriate to utilize the services of local business man inhibited the expansion and acquisition of necessary skills and attitude. For this reasons many eventually folded up. Hose that folded built up a resentment against business which become very demoralizing to other prospective entrepreneurs. As a result, the flow of entrepreneurship in the country was slowed down. But with more people being educated and the fact that government could no longer employ most school leavers, economy programs to encourage individuals to go into private business and self reliant were initiated (Theodore Gieger in Nwachukwu C.C (1990).

In view of the impact of entrepreneurship in improving the socio-economic conditions of the state, the government  have made initiatives to promote indigenous entrepreneurship in small scale business. According to Lawal A.A 91998:2) typically actions of the government take the form of policy initiatives and directives to organization such as ministry of commerce and industry, national directorate of employment, ministry of labour and productivity, center for management development, research institutes to act as executing agencies with responsibility for stimulating, supporting and sustaining entrepreneurship development.

The researcher believes that a study of the functions as well as the achievement of the national directorate of employment (NDE) in Enugu state would help to evaluate the role of government support agencies in entrepreneurship development within the state.


In Enugu state, various government support agencies have been set up by the government to assist entrepreneurship development and encourage the rapid development of small and medium scale industries. These agencies were established because government owned organization can no longer cope with employment of graduates and school leavers. Further more, the graduates and school leavers have to establish their own small business, which will help in solving the problems of unemployment and economic development.

Therefore, in carrying out this research it is very important to study the problems listed below.

i.   Examine the mandates for establishing the NDE.

ii. To find out the programmes put in place by the NDE in order to successfully achieve these mandates.

iii. Know how far the NDE has gone in achieving her mandates.

iv. Some constraints problems which the NDE encounters in their effort to achieve her goals would be disclosed.


The aim of this study is to take a segment of the government support agencies (NDE) and study her functions and achievement in the development of entrepreneurship in Enugu state.

Whether the establishment of national directorate of employment (NDE) has a positive effect impact on entrepreneurship development in Enugu State or not.

If the programmes of the NDE has helped to achieve her mandates or not.

Whether the development of entrepreneurship in Enugu state can be attributed to the establishment of NDE or not.

Come out with findings and subsequent suggestion that would be of great benefit to other government agencies might be experiencing similar problems diagnosed in this research.


The scope of this study is very wide if it has to be carried out in all the government agencies in Enugu state however, due to certain constraints which will be stated later in the limitation of study, the researcher decided that this study concentrate on the promotion and achievements of the national directorate of employment (NDE) to the development of entrepreneurship in Enugu state.


In order to find out solution to the lingering problems of this study, the following hypothesis were formulated


H0:    The establishment of the national directorate of employment (NDE) has no positive effect impact on entrepreneurship development in Enugu state.

H1:    The establishment of the national directorate of employment (NDE) has no positive effect impact on entrepreneurship development in Enugu state.


H0:    The growth in the number of small business or entrepreneurial organization in Enugu state can not be attributed to the establishment of the NDE.

 H1:   The growth in the number of small business or entrepreneurial organization in Enugu state can not be attributed to the establishment of the NDE.


H0:    NDE have not helped to introduce new ideas and methods of production in Enugu.

H1:    NDE have not helped to introduce new ideas and methods of production in Enugu.


This research will be of immense help to the society, but there are group of people or organization who will benefit more from this work.

They include:

-   The management and staff of the various government agencies.

-   Trainers, trainees and beneficiaries of NDE training programmes.

-   Students who will use this work for research purposes.

The research is equally very significant because it will enrich the knowledge of the reading public who may come across the work A study on functions and achievement of government  support agencies in the development of entrepreneurship in Enugu state


The researcher found it necessary to define or explain the following terms used among others in this place of work.

a. Government support agencies: These are government departments that are specifically charged with providing funds and other services for the promotion and development of entrepreneurship.

b. ENTREPRENEUR: An entrepreneur is a peon who identifies business  opportunities and organizes the required to initiated successful business activity.

c. SURPLUS: An amount that is extra, or more than you need e.g agricultural food surpluses.

d. CREATIVE: Having the skill and ability to produce something new. It involves the use of skill and the imagination to produce new thing or work of art.

e.  INNOVATION:   Introduction of new things ideas or ways of doing things.

f. SMALL BUSINESS:     This is the business which is independently owned and operated and not dominant in its feel of operation.

g. TRAINEE:  A person who is being taught how to do a particular job or skill

h. TRAINER: A person who teaches people how to perform a particular job  or skill well.

i.  LOAN:        Money that an organization such as bank lends and somebody borrows.


 Ani Nnnenna B (1999) Entrepreneurial Development an Overview Enugu JTC Publishers.

Lawal A.A et al (1998) Entrepreneurship Development in Small Scale  Business Lagos Labson Researcher Nig. Ltd.

Nwachukwu C.C (19990) The Practice Of Entrepreneurship In Nigerian Africa FEP Pub. Ltd

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 6th Edition.