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PSYCHOATIC DRUG ABUSE AMONG WOMEN IN SLUM DWEELERS IN IDI ORO AND IMPLICATION ON CHILD CARE
The study examined the effect of psychoatic drug abuse among women in slum dwellers in Idi Oro and implication on child care. The population of the study consisted of all the populace of Idi Oro. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select 250 respondents out of the population. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The instrument was validated by two experts in evaluation and Test. Data from 250 completed questionnaire forms were subjected to independent t-test analysis. the findings showed that psychoatic drug abuse among women in slum dwellers in Idi Oro and implication on child care. The study also recommended that more awareness on the meaning of psychoactive substance abuse should be made available in courses, in guidance and counseling centres and bill boards as majority of the populace does not have knowledge of psychoactive substances and its use. Equal attention should be paid to both male and female in the society on the effects of psychoactive substance use.
1.1 Background to the study
Drug abuse according to Laver (1978), simply means the improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences became detrimental to the user and or the society. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2006), defined drug abuse as a state of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individuals and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic).
Some other drugs have been found to be capable of producing effects that are not beneficial but harmful (Oloyede, 1996). The term drug abuse, applies only to instances in which people take drugs purely to change their moods, and in which people experience impaired behaviours or social functioning as a result of doing so (Wallace & Fisher 1987). Unfortunately, when people consume consciousness-altering drugs on a regular basis, they often develop dependence and come to need the drug, and cannot function without it. According to Odejide, Ohaeri, Adelekan and Ihuesan (1987), they remarked that psychoactive substance abuse is a common problem among adolescents especially for the socially acceptable drugs like alcohol and cigarettes. A survey of secondary school students in Ilorin, Kwara State reported that 12 percent were using alcohol (Abiodun, Adelekan, Ogunremi, Oni & Obayan, 1994).
A drug has been defined as any substance that when absorbed into a living organism may modify one or more of its physiological functions (Croen, Woesner, Hermann and Reichgott, 1997). The term is generally used in reference to a substance taken for both therapeutic purpose and as abused substances (Kwamanga, Odhiambo and Amukoye, 2003). Drug abuse is excessive illicit drug use also defined as self-administration of illicit drugs, in quantities/frequencies which may impart functional inability resulting in the user’s physical, social and/or emotional self-harm (Croen, et al., 1997). Using this latter definition, abused drugs in Kenya would include antibiotics, anti-diarrhoeas, laxatives and pain-relieving drugs (Otieno and Ofulla, 2009).
A United States of America (USA) study further revealed that excessive illicit drug use rate among high school students and young adults increase with age with a prevalence rate of 19.6% between the ages of 18-20 years as indicated in Kwamanga, et al., (2003) a quotation from the [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), (1997)] in the USA. In Britain; cross–sectional studies have shown that at least 40% of women aged 25-26 years have had used illicit drugs - mainly cannabis sativa, at one of their lifetimes or some time in their lives. Also among those aged 26-30 years, 38% of males and 5% of females regularly drink twice per week which is the recommended save level of taking alcohol as recommended in [Alcohol Concern, (2000)] as quoted from Miller and Plant (1996).
In Nigeria, studies have consistently shown that there is considerable prevalence of drugs and substances use; with varying prevalence rates found for both overall and specific drug abuse (Abdulkarim, Mokuolu and Adeniyi, 2005). Factors influencing students to drug use have been identified among them parental influence: children from homes where parents take drugs tend to imitate their parents’ behaviour and by modelling they also start using drugs (Ngesu, Ndiku and Masese, 2008). According to Adelekan, Makanjuola, Ndom, Fayeye, Adegoke and Amusan (2005) women may start using illegal drugs because the drugs are easily available from their environment.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Drug abuse menace has strangled youthful population both adolescents by reducing them to dummies, zombies and drooling figures as well as wasting their lives at the age which they are most needed in the society (Ngesu, Ndiku and Masese, 2008). Despite the worldwide concern and education about the dangers of drug abuse, most of the women have limited knowledge of how dangerous the habit is (Ngesu, et al., 2008).
As noted in the background information, a critical challenge in the society and slum areas in the Nigerian society today is the force attracting more women to the illicit drug use habit (Muganda, 2004). Despite the government’s concern and heightened campaigns against the vice among youths, there exists a parallel accelerated rate of women who are illicit drug users. Although, some women e.g single parents, married etc. are expected to be aware of the effects of drug abuse and commit themselves to the welfare of their wards, the habit still exist default of their prior expected awareness of its consequences.
Despite the fact that there has been some guidance and counseling from ministry of health through Nigerian Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and other related agencies, recurrence of violence still persists in Idi, Oro, Mushin local government area of Lagos State
1.3 Purpose of the study
The following objectives were used to guide the study;
- To examine the influence of knowledge on the psychoactive substance use by women in slum dwellers on their child care
- To examine the influence of age group of women in slum dwellers and the use of psychoactive substance on their child care
- To examine the influence of place of residence of women in slum dwellers and the use of psychoactive substance on their child care
1.4 Research questions
The study sought to answer the following research questions;
- What is the influence of knowledge on the psychoactive substance use by women in slum dwellers on their child care?
- What is the influence of age group of women in slum dwellers and the use of psychoactive substance on their child care?
- What is the influence of place of residence of women in slum dwellers and the use of psychoactive substance on their child care?
- There is no significant influence of knowledge on the psychoactive substance use by women in slum dwellers on their child care.
- There is no significant influence of age group of women in slum dwellers and the use of psychoactive substance on their child care.
- There is no significant influence of place of residence of women in slum dwellers and the use of psychoactive substance on their child care.
1.6 Significance of the study
The results of the study would help in creating awareness in the society on the general effects of drug abuse on their health most especially the slum dwellers. It would also make the youths to realize that excessive or even small intake of this item (drugs) has inhibitory effects on their brain. The result of this the study would be used in making the youths to have a second thought before partaking in the act.
The study would go a long way in reducing the numerous health problems encountered as a result drug abuse, misuse and addiction. The study would also help to determine the current prevalence of psychoactive substance abuse among the slum dwellers and thereby helping the related authority in decision making process. The data and information gathered in the course of this research would assist Institutions and authorities to most especially the Information and Communication Technology Directorate of NDLEA to understand the extent of problems associated with drug abuse and the need to expedite action in reducing the prevalence of psychoactive substance abuse slum dwellers
1.7 Limitations of the study
It will not be possible to isolate prevalence of drug use due to the five factors in the objectives of the study because drug use is also influenced by many other factors whose influence might be beyond the control of the researcher. Some of the factors that influence prevalence of drug use includes; inadequate rehabilitation centres, breakdown of African culture, lack of parental control, easy availability of drugs, influence of mass media, peer group pressure, the age factors, curiosity and modern day rites of passage, parental influence, availability of cash as pocket money and school related factors. The aforementioned factors have not been all inclusively covered in the study.
1.8 Delimitations of the study
The study was delimited to psychotics drug abuse among women in slum dwellers in idi oro and implication on child care.
1.10 Definition of significant terms
This section consists of in the “context meaning” of various terms as used in the study.
Availability of Drugs- uncontrolled presence of drugs within reach of students without straining
Ceteris Paribas- in this study refers to a case where a factor is allowed to exert its influence assuming that all other factors was held constant.
Drug- a substance that when absorbed into a human body modifies its physiological functions
Drug Abuse: refers to excessive illicit drug use and/or licit drug use without a Doctor’s prescription
Drug Addiction- is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of illicit drugs.
Drug Use-is a legitimate drug used following the Doctor’s prescription for therapeutic purposes
Peer Pressure- influence of age-mates in a cohort on a nondrug user to start using illicit drugs
Prevalence- refers to the magnitude of drug use among a particular age population