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ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THE CIVIL SERVICE AND ITS EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MATERIAL
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter attempts to review some researchers work on human resources management.
Ducker (1982: P. 308) said human resources are the greatest assets of managers. The need for human resources management in any organization needs not to be over emphasized an organization cannot operate in isolation without the presence of human resources.
Since it is a well known fact that, in any organization, it is the combination of materials and human resources that constitute it, it is therefore apparent that material resources, it is the human resources, that directs the activities in an organization.
Glueck (1980: 18) defined Human Respites management as the decisions and activities involving human resources that are intended to influence the effectiveness of the employees and the organization. In the past, many organizations usually pay little or no attention to their human resources, but at present many organizations have seen the need to take into cognizance, their human resources.
Glueck farther viewed management of human resources as a changing activity since organizations themselves are not static, as such employees are becoming more insistent that their needs be met. He also viewed that conditions outside the organization such as the government, economic unions and conditions within the organization such as organization strategies, nature of work, nature of employees and work groups all affect human resources programs.
Human resources management is very realistic, although time consuming and difficult to implement. Amore effective human resources management is the only best hope for stopping a decrease in productivity.
Ducker (1982: 309) asserted that human resources greatly affect the productivity of organizations, without the “right” people in place, resources management by any definition will fail. The only difference between one organization and another are performance of the people. Ducker’s opinion was that of all their resources, people are the utilized and that little of human potential of organization is tapped and put to work, he therefore advocated managing human resources in the most profitable in an organization.
Harper (1978:85) views human resources management as “that aspect of management which seeks to maximize resources efficiently for the productivity of people. He has of the opinion that organizations would be a great advantage, since human resources management leads to commitment to the goals of the organization.
Harper (1978: 90) suggested that effective human resources management has to evaluate quality working life in an organization and for achieving this, He listed six criteria namely:-
- Adequate and fair compensation in the organization
- Safety and health
- Security of its workforce
- Social integration in the work organization
- Work and total life space
- Social relevance of work life
Most organizations have to come to realize the importance of these factors and their mix strategy to human resources management.
Glueck (1979: 5 – 7) asserted that human resources are critically important because they significantly influence productivity of goods and services, people operate the machines, people design new products, and services, people make the decisions to borrow and spend financial resources and people market the products and deliver the services. People decide the objectives of the organization so without effective human resources, it would be impossible for an organization to achieve these objectives.
People influence not only the expenses associated with achieving the organization’s mission but also productivity and effectiveness of the organization. In decision making, the decision maker considers the employee’s, their jobs, the organization, the external environment and the desired result. What is new however is the serious and systematic attention given to human resources management by organizations.
John E. (1978: 141-2), depicted that motivation is a technique for managing human resources.
Thus, highly motivated person is twice as resourceful and productive. The unmotivated individual, because of his potential untapped energy a great deal of research and experimentation has been done in an effort to find the proper formula for turning people on. The challenges and benefits of research are to identify, segregate, organize, and verbalize what is happening today. He analyzed that people will do their best to live up to the trust that has been imposed upon them, particularly if the trust is more than they deserve at the time.
Dennis (1978: 975) says “people in an organization are its major resources; if they are not properly trained, for work they have to perform they will not do it as they could and operations will not be profitable as they might be organizations have to come to realize that each employee needs training to undertake this effectively.
- HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Human resources management encompasses those activities designed to provide for and coordinate the human resources of an organization. The human resources of an organization represent one of its largest investments. The value of an organization’s human resource frequently becomes evident when the organization is sold.
Human resource management is a modern term for what has traditionally been referred to as personnel administration or personnel management. However, some experts believe human resources management differs somewhat from traditional personnel management. They see personnel management as being much narrower and more clerically oriented than human resources management.
2.2 FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Human resource functions refer to those tasks and duties performed in both large and small organizations to provide for and coordinate human resources. Human resources function encompasses a variety of activities that significantly influences all areas of an organization. The Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) has identified six major functions of human resources management:
- Human resource planning, recruitment and selection.
- Human resources development.
- Compensation and benefits.
- Safety and health.
- Employee and labor relations.
- Human resources research.
- HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING, RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
- Conducting job analysis to establish the specific requirements of individual jobs within the organization.
- Forecasting the human resources requirement the organizations needs to achieve its objectives.
- Developing and implementing a plan to meet these requirements.
- Recruiting the human resource the organization requires to achieve objectives.
- Selecting and hiring human resources to fill specific jobs within the organization.
- HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
- Orienting and training employees.
- Designing and implementing management and organizational development programmes.
- Building effective teams within the organization structure.
- Designing systems for appraising the performance of individual employees.
- Assisting employees in developing career plans.
- COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS
- Designing and implementing compensation and benefit systems for all employees.
- Ensuring that compensation and benefits are fair and consistent.
- EMPLOYEE AND LABOUR RELATIONS
- Serving as an intermediary between the organization and its union (s).
- Designing discipline and grievance handling systems.
- SAFETY AND HEALTH
- Designing and implementing programmes to ensure employee health and safety.
- Providing assistance to employees with personal problems that influence their work performance.
- HUMAN RESOURCE RESEARCH
- Providing a human resources information base.
- Designing and implementing employee communication systems.
2.3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The messages from research, especially that carried out by Purcell (2003) are that the H.R. can make an impact by leading or contributing to:-
- The development and successful implementation of high performance work practices, particularly those concerned with job and work design, flexible working, resourcing, (recruitment and selection and talent management), employee development (increasing skills and extending the skills base), reward, and giving employees a voice.
- The formulation and embedding of a clear vision and set of values (the big idea).
- The development of a positive psychological contact and means of increasing the motivation and commitment of employees.
- The formulation and implementation of polices which in the words of Purcell et al (2003) meets the needs of individuals and create a great place to work;
- The provision of support and advice to line managers on their role in implementing human resources policies and practices.
- The effective management of change.
2.4 THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT AS IT RELATES TO COMMERCIAL SERVICES
Management is seen as performing three major roles in attaining and achieving the objectives of commercial services in a media setting these are; the role of legislature, judiciary and that of executive.
2.4.1LEGISLATURE (FORMULATION OF POLICY)
Defined policy as a statement of organization primary objectives accompanied by directives, indicating the general pattern to be followed to ensure tits implementation.
2.4.2 JUDICIARY (INTERPRETATION OF POLICY)
Described by some authority of management as the interpretative or judicial function usually carried out for interpreting and dissemination of the policy for easy understanding.
2.4.3 EXECUTIVE (IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY)
This is the responsibility of those identifiable with administration carrying out what has been formulated and interpreted.