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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE IN BANKING OPERATION (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU MAIN BRANCH)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As men invented tools, weapons, clothings, shelter and language the need for training becomes an essential ingredient in the match to civilization. Whether our ancestors struggled upon or invented these facts of civilization is relatively of little significant. What is more important is that man has the ability to pass on to others the knowledge and skill gained in mastery circumstance. Deliberate example, signs and words did this, through these devices another received the development process called training successfully. We say that learning took place when knowledge or skill was transferred. The ninth century ushered in an era of social legislation and with its sizable change in the concept of the workers.
Through all these changes, however one constant development emphasis has been upon the qualities of workers and this has been culminated instant support of the trackUnionfor any registration of a wide range of vocational education. One of the objectives of every organization should be to provide opportunities for its employee to optimize their performance in pursuit of their organizational goals. With this aid in view, it may also be profitable to help employee satisfy their own personal objective if employee feels that the organization cares for them as people, there is more likelihood of their responding widely to satisfy the need of the concern.
When we consider training, therefore, we are seeking instruction or experimental means to develop a persons behavioural pattern in order to achieve a standard a level of performance. Learning, therefore, is an essential pre-requisite for adequate performance in one’s occupation what ever the job may be. The importance of human resource to any organization whether public or private should be identified. Organizational objective such as profit maximization, share market and social responsibilities cannot be fulfilled without human being who co-ordinate the activities of the organization using other factors of production.
The realization of the value of human capital to any organization has led to a proposal by experts that people should be classified as asset and to be so received in accounting records. Investment in human capital is a worthy and necessary expenditure if any organization is to discharge its legal statutory and social responsibilities to its owners, its public and society at large.
The undisputable reasons why training of employee should be undertaking is because of change posed by modern technology which takes place every minutes, hours, days, weeks, etc and the world is faced with an era of technological advancement that can make already acquired skill obsolete.
Training therefore is not reflected only to old employee or new employee but to both and even to senior management personnel performance. It should not be seen as the final step to the workers poor performance with these, training has a two fold functions such as:
1. To overcome deficiencies in individual that cannot be self remedy or mastered on the job even with the help of supervisor.
2. To develop the potentialities of up and doing employee.
One this note, we ask then what is training all about?
According to Penny Hacket, “training is the preparation for a particular job. It is concerned with job performance and the application of knowledge and skill to present work”.
It is also concern with meeting between two inputs or organizational effectiveness, people and technology, since organization can rearly secure people who do things the right way. Training is also acquisition of knowledge, skill, technological experience. It brighten employee attitude towards their work and improve job performance which in turn facilitate their realization of organizational objective. InNigeria, the government has realized the need to develop human resource since independence in 1960. It was discovered that most top government positions were held by expatriate and theNigeriahad five scientist and engineers then. Government had to set up a manpower board in 1962 following the reports of Abbey’s commission in order to increase executive capacity, more University and Polytechnic to be set up too. Enrolment into the University grew, many Polytechnics were established by both Federal and State government and growth in the number of secondary school and primary enrolment became very high. Several training institution such as Industrial Training Fund (ITF), Centre for Management Development and Administration, staff College were set up to accelerate human resource development.
Development, according to Mathias and Jackson, focuses on “increasing the capabilities of employees for continuing growth in the organizations”.
“Human resources of any organizations consists of all individuals engaged in the organizations activities regardless of the level”, according to Ikeagwu. They refer to employees whose potentials, talents and abilities are utilized and combined with the other resources.
According to Byars and Rue, “human resources management embraces those activities designed to provide for and co-ordinate the human resources of an organization i.e the human resources in the form of wages, salaries, recruitment, hiring, training and development.
In the case of Union Bank Nigeria Plc which is a leading banking institution in Nigeria with many years of banking experience, industry and residence behind it. The former name of the bank was Barclays Bank of Ni9geria Ltd. But because of government law that all foreign firms should be indigenized, its name was changed to Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.
The Bank commenced operations inNigeriain 1917 and was incorporated as a private limited liability company inNigeriain 1969. it was converted to a public company in 1970.
Today, the bank has diversified into a whole range of banking activities and services including commercial, merchant and international banking.
The Bank has experienced phenomenal growth over the years with a share capital of N2.5 billion in 1999, the share capital also raised to N7billion in 2003 and recently, they are working towards achieving the capital base of N25 billion on or before December,2005. the bank’s numerical growth of branches also increased, its staff strength also increased.
Through computerization, the bank has enhanced its level of operations and has responded to the increasing competition from other banks. In addition to computerization, an efficient information management system have been introduced into the bank operation in order to facilitate rapid response to customers. Moreso, the bank has installed a new banking software known as flexi cube.
Today, the bank has may staff training centers in the country located in the following cities:Lagos, Jos, Zaira and Port-Harcourt. Its headquarter is situated atLagosand its other head offices inLondonandSouth Africa. The bank has Area offices and some branches within the country.
However, dynamic and progressive organizations must keep abreast of the new technological development and techniques especially now that the emphasis is on automation so that organization can meet up with the ever increasing complexity and advancement in their operations. This implies that new employees must be given initial training in form of orientation to policies, practices and organizational forms.
Hence, for an organization to succeed, it must identify and analyse problem/factors surrounding it and where training and development of human resources can solve them economically, they should be planned for and carried out.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The rate of which the fortunes of Union Bank Plc are dwindling is a source of worry and requires immediate attention, training and development of Human resources thus constitutes a major factor that makes for progress and productivity, but when neglected could lead to absenteeism and poor turnover.
The main problem of this study is to investigate if training and development of human resources is practiced in Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.
The study seeks to find out the approaches of training and development of human resources in the bank.
The study seeks to find out the approaches of performances appraisal in the bank.
The study seeks to find out the impact of modified behaviour, attitude and moral on employees in order to establish whether or not they lead to conducive or better working climate in the organization.
The study seeks to probe the negative attitudes of management and supervisors on training and development of their sub-ordinates so as to establish whether they have impact on the unprecedented labour turnover.
1.3 OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
Based on the problems highlighted, the purpose of this study are:
1. To determine the influence of human resources training and development in the operation of the bank.
2. To find out the number of staff trained each year and how it has affected performance at work.
3. To determining the type of training available, method and place of training.
4. To find out whether staff of the bank see training and development programme as motivating and mean of job enrichment and satisfaction.
- To evaluate works performance before and after training course.
- To determine whether there is any relationship between labour turnover and availability of training and development opportunities in bank.
- To ascertain if the negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and development of their sub-ordinates promote unprecedented labour turnover
- To make recommendation where necessary to banks in order to make more meaningful its human resource training and development
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Training and development have not improved the level of job performance of the staff of the bank
Hi: Training and development does improved the level of job performance of the staff of the bank
H0: Availability of training and development have no effect on the rate of labour turnover in the bank
Hi: Availability of training and development have no effect on the rate of labour turnover in the bank.
H0: Training and development opportunities has no effect on workers motivation
Hi: Training and development opportunities has no effect on workers motivation.
Byars and Rve (1991) “Human Resources Management Lecture Note” Extracted By Ikeagwu (Unpublished)
Ikeagwu E.K (1994) “Human Resources Management Lecture Note” . The Nature and Definition of human Resource Management (Unpublished)
Okoye S.C (1982) “Industry Training Fund Lecture Not” The System Training and it Benefits (Unpublished)
Ubeku K.A (1975) Personnel Management inNigeriaEthiope Publishing CompanyBenin City
Annual Report of the Board of Director of Union Bank PLC, 1991 2001 and 2993