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TRADE UNIONISM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MANAGEMENT POLICIES IMPLEMENTATION (CASE STUDY OF LIFE BREWERIES PLC ONITSHA)
Trade disputes and industrial disharmony in recent times have resulted to low output production lose of lives and properties in the country.
It is thus a worth wile exercise to determine the various ways in which trade unions may influence the implementation of the management policies of an organization, and possibly suggest ways of harmonizing management policies with workers objectives.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to the trade union Decree No 36 section (1) of 1973, trade union is defined as any combination of workers or employees whether temporary or permanent for the purpose of which is to regulate the terms and conditions of workers employment.
However, a trade union is permitted by law to have additional purpose instead than that of regulating the terms and conditions of worker employment. It also utilizes its reasonable resources in some other untraceable positions or situations as contained in the rulebook of the union.
A trade union movement existed in Nigeria as early as 1912 with the civil service union as the first that came into existence, union like the Nigeria Railway Native staff union 1919 and the Nigeria union of teachers in 1931.
However, as the result of the passage of the trade union ordinance in 1938, other trade union emerged several of the union formed were ill motivated by their leaders since the leaders) seem to be illiterate and ignorance at what actually union suppose to be.
According to Yesufu (1952) the main reason for the formation of the civil service union was merely to match with union formed in Sierra Leone and other countries in West Africa, in the supreme position, the main aim for the formation of the unions were:
(1) To protect the welfare and interest of members
(2) To protect the employment position of the members
(3) To maintain the dignity in labour and
(4) To maintain standard working hours with standard remuneration equal to the output i.e. to stop or reduce much of human exploitation by the employer.
Management policies however, are the instrument used by the top management of any organization (firm) in ensuring the problems facing the organization are solved within an acceptable constraint good policies provide definite and as well allow subordinates to make their own decision with limits hence the members of the organization are charged with the responsibility of operating the organization as a system.
Management polices at the other side of the coin are nothing unless it degenerates into action or work. Management should thus ensure that the policies formulated are meticulously exercised to also take care of the employees. Implementation requires good and continuous communication up and down the management ladder as well as across. Therefore for an organization to achieve it’s desired goal, it must formulate appeal form subordinates to avoid friction and also identify or contain problems which were not putting into cognizance in the previously set policies.
In (1958) chamberlain says that the reason for the existences and formation of trade union s contained in the power and authority to gain certain advantages for the workers which include:
(a) Regular and maintained employment position with adequate income which enables them (workers) improves their standard of living.
(b) Rationalization of personnel policies, which will enable the workers rest, assured for the employment security through acceptable policies.
(c) Right of having contributions to decision making that effect their welfare and the organization. This therefore enable the worker to participate in decision in production of output.
(d) Protection from economic hazards or economic invasion. This therefore helps in curbing or eradicating the exploitative attitude of the employer over the employee and remunerations equal to such human exploitation must be paid.
Therefore the aim of this study is to identify the various management policies of life breweries plc Onitsha, the implementation of such policies and ways in which they conflict with the workers objectives and how the workers influence these policies through their labour union an to recommend possible ways by which the management policies implementation will be harmonized with the workers objectives to enhance production efficiency as well as maintaining industrial peace and harmony in the organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This topic as it concerns the employer/employee relationship to the effect of the organizational management have some numerous problems to be tackled upon as to determine the trade disputes and industrial disharmony in recent times as it has resulted to loose of lives and properties in the country.
To identify a numerous goods worth billions of naira and time that would have been utilized as output production where wasted. Therefore, it is a worth while exercise to determine the various ways in which trade union may influence the management policies implementation of an organization thereby find out possible suggesting ways to harmonizer management policies implementation their various trade union.
To find out how the management policies implementation of life breweries plc Onitsha can be affected by the trade union in the organization. To determine the reaction of trade union based on the attitudes opinions and other factors that necessitate the organizational non improvement.
Finally to identify how the management policies could be implemented to match with the objectives of the organization in general.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Generally, the purpose of this study is to find out the various ways which trade unions can influence the management policies implementation of an organization, particularly in life breweries plc Onitsha:
(1) To identify the various management policies of life breweries plc Onitsha.
(2) To unfold the implementations of these policies and where they are in conflict with the workers aims and objectives.
(3) To determine possible cause of workers dissatisfaction in the organization.
(4) To determine the various weapons used by labour unions in fighting unhealthy management policies.
(5) To determine the various strategies which the employers should adopt to ensure smooth continuity of both the organization and the workers employment position.
(6) To identify ways of improving employees and employers relationship harmoniously in work situation
(7) To determine the various machineries used in setting industrial disputes.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will be very wide if it has to be carried out in all the manufacturing organizations in the country, for this reason, the study therefore covers only life breweries plc, Onitsha because of time constraints, finance, human and material cost that would have make it cover the whole nation.
In life breweries plc too, attention is paid to production administration, finance and marketing departments. This does not mean that other sections like the engineering, transport etc were not include during the study.
These findings may not be necessary to other breweries industries in the country, but it is assumed that what happens in life breweries plc Onitsha. On the implementation of management policies can be applied in other organisation in the particularly in brewery industries.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(1) Do the trade union activities influence the implementation of management policies in life breweries plc Onitsha.
(2) Has the influence of trade unionism on the company’s management policies any negative effect on the performance of the organization.
(3) Are the workers satisfied with their job
(4) Can trade unionism and their effects on the implementation of the company’s management policies be checked and controlled by formulating management policies in such a manner that they will match with workers aim and aspirations which they seek to achieve while rendering their useful and official services to the organization.
(5) Do the trade union undertake peaceful dialogue as a means of setting trade dispute between management and the employees.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Note that Ho and HI below represent the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis respectively.
(1) Ho: The trade union activities does not influence the implementation of management policies in life breweries plc Onitsha.
(2) HI: Trade union activities influences the implementation policies has a lot of negative effects on the performance of the organization.
(3) Ho: The influence of trade unionism on the implementation of the company’s management policies does not have negative effects on the performance of the organization.
(4) HI: The influence of trade unionism has a negative to checked and controlled by formulating management policies in such a manner that they will match with worker’s aims and aspiration which they seek to achieve while rendering their useful official services to the organization.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCES OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will greatly contribute to the resolution of industrial disputes resulting from the non-rationalization of management policies with the objectives of the employees which they seek expressly or implied through their labour unions.
The findings of this study will greatly help the management of life breweries plc Onitsha to adopt and implement their policies in conjunction with the views of the employees of the organization. This will go a long way in joining the support and loyalty of the workers for the organization towards productivity because it is the same workers who are directly or indirectly involved in such policy formulation that are also those responsible for the implementation of those formulated policies.
Generally, it is believed that when employees are granted the right either express or implied towards policy formulation, it will enhance their commitments to the successful implementation of the policy, as well making it humanly possible to work.
Further, this study will also be of great importance and value to student studying business administration and management in particular, as well as those studying personnel management, industrial relations as distinct courses, hence it will enable them to be acquainted to courses like sociology, politics etc. in a work situation.
More so, the need for most research is the collection, interpretation and analysis of data for both present and future uses toward solving the identified problem. This inspiration and motive make the research to be a continues exercise.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is wide in scope, if not because of it’s wide scope and expenses involved I would have carried it out in all the manufacturing organization (Breweries) in the country for the above reason the study is specifically limited to life breweries plc Onitsha for effective and efficient study and to be free from bias, since the study is associated with time constraint, finance, human and material costs. Nevertheless, the above limitations also constituted of hindrance why carrying out the research in the company (Life Breweries).
Having limiting their study, attention is paid mainly and the marketing departments. This does not mean that other departments were not include but the above named departments has much to offer to the progress of the company or is considered as the most essential departments of the company.
Even though these findings may or may not be necessary to other brewery industries in the country, due to different on management policies and implementation. It could be applicable to some other breweries in the country due to similarities in production process, administration etc. the study is limited to life breweries plc Onitsha purposely for a good research.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(1) Administration: Co-ordination of human activities towards achieving the organizational goals or set objectives.
(2) Breweries: To the context of this study means manufacturing of consumable liquid content in bottles or cans. This could be alcoholic or non-alcoholic in nature.
(3) Conflict: Disagreement in understanding each other.
(4) Decree: As used in this study refers to law guiding the trade union in Nigeria as defined by the government.
(5) Dispute: Simply referred to mean the same as conflict in this study.
(6) Employee: Refers to workers in life breweries plc Onitsha. The people responsible for carrying out day – to – day activities of the company towards achieving the target goals.
(7) Employer: For the purpose of this study, means the life breweries management board simply referred to as one who engages human material resources for the production of goods and services.
(8) Exploitation: This however means using the human energies of the workers without equal rewards to that effect.
(9) Grievance: Simple put sign of dissatisfaction on that part or side of the workers of the company under study.
(10) Harmony: As used in the study means peace a money the workers the management and the trade union.
(11) Implementation: As used in the study means carrying out or use or simple execution / putting into action.
(12) Industrial dispute: Emergency of trouble or disagreement in work situation between the management and the works.
(13) Labour: The work force i.e. the engagement of humans in the production of goods and services for the benefit of other, used here as human resources of life breweries plc Onitsha.
(14) Management: Refers to the board of directors or management term of life breweries plc Onitsha
(15) Policy: A set of rules or principles to guide the activities of members of the organization under study (Life breweries plc Onitsha) toward the attainment of a given objective within specified time or purpose.
(16) Rationalization: To the context of this study refers to proper distribution or formulation of policies that will guide the organization and her staff.
(17) Remuneration: Reward for the good job or services rendered by the employee.
(18) Subordinate: This simply means a person who takes command or order or instruction from his superior in ranking.
(19) System: This means chain or line of operational activities to achieve a definite purpose.
(20) Trade union: Combination of members of the same profession or skills or trade etc. for their common interest or goal.
(21) Trade unionism: Means simply the stem of trade union.