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INFLUENCE OF STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON OPERATIONS OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION. (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMMCO ENUGU).
Some years ago, the concept of training and development were widely misunderstood and not fully appreciated in most Nigerian organization. Today, the situation has dramatically changed such that many organizations, business and non business organization have come to appreciate the need for employee development and training as a very important instrument for organization development.
Training and development date back to the beginning of man. In our own families, our parents direct the children on what to do. A little baby is trained / taught to sit, crawl, stand and walk. All these efforts are geared towards developing the child to gain essential skills for adaptability in this environment. It is this training and development that guides the child as he grows and matures into adulthood.
The above make it clear that although once is qualified to be employed in an office, to perform once duty or the other, yet the staff employed needs to be trained for adaptability in his office environment.
As can even be seen from the Biblical aspect of it, in the book of Samuel chapter 30, David the king of the Israelites realized the importance of training and development. By selecting his distinguished six hundred soldiers he gave the special training and sponsored their scientific and special reading to enable them to satisfy advisory roles in his palace and ultimately meet the nations needs in having a well trained army. It has become increasing apparent to more and more organization that life/long learning must become a reality for them to remain competitive in an increasingly demanding environment. Such learning can take place through training courses offered by the firm themselves or by outside suppliers of training and education.
According to Buke (vol 41, 1988; 731) it can also take place informally through learning and development on the job. There has recent literature Morrison (1992: and Burke (1994:28 suggesting the impact of both the number of development activities undertaken and their pertinences usefulness on a variety of work attitude and outcomes, such as self reported future career prospects.
Furthermore, training and development is seen as a continuous process, believing that money spent on training and development is money well spent.
According to Ubeku (1975:270) employee who have not received adequate training before assigning them with responsibility lack of necessary confidence with which to carry out the job. It is evident that the main objective of any organization is profit maximization, complimented with cost minimization. Hence, it is prudent for organizations to manage their resources in the best possible manner. One of such ways is through the manipulation of its labour force in such a way as to yield the highest attainable effective operations.
In the past, organization did not fully accept the benefits of employees’ training just because the results were not easily identified and clear.
The Federal Government of Nigeria recognized the benefit of training and manpower development when they established the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). Through the promogation of Decree No. 47 of 1971, the objective of which were to “promote and encourage employee training and development as well as the acquisition of skills to industries with a view to generating a pool of indigenous training manpower sufficient to meet the needs of economy”. With these objectives in mind, one realizes that it is very necessary for organizations to expect high productivity in order to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
It is a truism that without production, the organization will not survive and such survival is usually predicated on the quality, quantity and efficient use of resources.
All these cannot be achieved without the expertise knowledge and skill of the particular job coupled with the right attitudes acquired through training and development. Ogundele (1983:35) stresses that the success of an enterprise depends on the effectiveness of the human resources, the skill and the enthusiasm of the employees.
He observed that a set of objectives will not be achieved if there is no competent employees to effect such objectives. He argues that human development could be effected by the employees concerned through trial and error but error but better by the organization, through as well planned training scheme or programme.
He argued that the question should not be whether or not to train but the type of training to be employed. He concluded that human resources are rather scarce production factors which must be intelligently handled.
This brings us to be the importance of labour. Likert (1967:11) lie of taught is that “all activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the person who make up that institution”. The importance of labour force are two folds. First, its indispensability in the organization set up. Second is its unpredictable nature. Mainly because of the later, it is very necessary to take special care of this factor of production i.e labour.
In actually, no man is indispensable but suffice it to say that there are costs associated with recruitment and orientation or new staff. The profit the organization would have reaped from having this in mind, my aim in this research paper is to highlight the influence of staff training and development on effective operations and hence after make recommendations from the empirical findings.
THE IMPORTANCE OF STAFF TRAINING
After an employee has been selected, placed and inducted he should also be trained. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. No organization has a choice of whether to train or not, the only choice is that of method, if no planned training programme established this has not eliminated training costs. The employee will train himself by trail and error or by observing others.
The establishment of a sound training programme serves the interest of both the management and workers. Training is valuable to the employee in terms of better security and greater opportunity for advancement within or outside the present organization.
Other values of training include: -
- INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY: An increased in skill usually results in increase in quantity and quality output. The increasingly technical nature of modern job demands systematic training to enable even minimum, levels of accomplishment.
- HEIGHTENED MORALE: The possession of needed skills helps to meet such basic needs as security and ego satisfaction. Elaborate personnel and human relations programme can make a contribution toward moral but they will be of little use of employees do not possess the necessary knowledge, skill aptitude and altitude to perform their job.
- REDUCED SUPERVISOR: The trained employee is once who supervise himself. Both employee and supervisor want less supervision, but greater independence is not possible unless the employee is adequately trained.
- REDUCED ACCIDENTS: More accidents are caused by deficiencies in people than in equipment and working conditions. Proper training in both job skills and safety attitudes should contribute towards reduction on the accident rate.
HISTORY OF ANAMCO LTD
Mercedes – Benz Anammco is a joint venture between the Federal Government of Nigeria and Daimler – Benz AG/Mercedes Benz AG of Germany. Anambra manufacturing company Anammaco with corporate headquarters at Emene industrial layout PM.B. 2523, Enugu was incorporated on January 17, 1977 comes up with other details as follows:
- laying of foundation stone May 12, 1978
- official commissioning of plant July 8, 1980
- commencement of official production January, 1981
- Installed production capacity on one shift per-annum 7,500 commercial vehicles (Truck assembly).
- Present capacity utilization approve 15% of installed capacity.
- Total production to end of December, 199 approx. 20,000 (made up of trucks and buses)
MB – ANAMMCO manufactures commercial vehicles and leads in the commercial vehicle market in Nigeria with five tons pay load and above. The plant which occupies a sprawling 300,000 square meter sites at Emene, near Enugu is veritably and viable economic and technological co-operation between the government and people of Nigeria and Germany.
Training and Manpower Development:
The MB – ANAMMCO Training centre, which was commissioned in 1982, has lived up to its billing in producing high calibre middle – level technical manpower for the company, and the nation in general. The MB – ANAMMCO Training centre was conceived with the object – objective of providing training facilities not only for apprentices but also for on the job training for improvement in technical skills, work habits and leadership qualities of factory managers. Because of inadequacies in formal education. When measured against the background of the diverse needs of industries, training and retraining cannot but be accorded high priority in the scheme of things in MB – ANAMMCO.
MB – ANAMMCO continues to live up to its social responsibilities in all ramifications. It takes care of its over 800 employees by offering them highly subsidized food at its modern canteen, providing free medical services to its employees and their dependents and offering them recreational facilities, it has a football club and also cultural groups. In addition, it occasionally donates to charity and identify with the government in its socio-cultural endeavous and community development efforts.
The contribution of MB – ANAMMCO to the economic development of Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. The company has continued maintain a high level of resilience in its attempt to survive the harsh economic climate and live up to the confidence reposed in it as an extension of the most historical, traditional and successful auto company in the word. Mercedes Benz AG.
Their staff strength as at December 31st 1990 is 794 (expateriates 12) (service map).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
During the course of my investigations I discovered to my surprise that although MB – ANAMMCO is a congiomarate, it does not have a well defined training and retraining programmes for all cardes of employees expecially for those at the administration lines as well as those at stone house (management).
This lapse has resulted in many recorded cases of industrial accidents, material losses/missing ad wastages. These problems attracts a massive retrenchment and industrial close down in 1984 immediately after the fall of second republic which, later induced the two countries Nigeria and Germany in reaching another agreement on rehabilitation and re-equipping the firm with all the efforts the two continues to take different shape, in different dimensions like, inflation of materials in put, misconducting and misplacing of materials randomly, until 1996/97 when, it attracted another massive retrenchment only this time, as a result of corruption and industrial mal-practice.
It is evident that establishment like Banks, which have provision for training are able to retain their staff. Initially these banks with the intention of being bankers but because man is fond of utilizing all available opportunities they end up as professional bankers. This is not the case with Anambra manufacturing company (ANAMMCO LTD) where, due to the absence of professional trainees in store administrations /managements and manpower development mobility of labour is high. Having watched this trend, which captured my interest, it is my intention to highlight to problems, prospect and usefulness of a well planned professional training programmes, including professionals in certificates, not by merits. My recommendation therefore based on my findings, if applied by the executives of Anambra manufacturing company (ANAMMCO LTD), will be beneficial to that organization in particular and to her staff in general.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Having recognized the need for training and development and their influence in employee performance, the researcher intends to:
To determine the influence of staff training and developmental organizations. Though a case study of Anambra manufacturing company (ANAMMCO LTD) Enugu.
To determine the relationship between training and staff operations.
Probe into the attitude of the staff to future training.
Determine if the nature of work performed does not need training and development.
1.4 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to Anambra manufacturing company ANAMMCO LTD Enugu, despite the unavailability of a previous report on this subject.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i Is the level of operations directly affect by the level of training?
ii. Does training reduce the rate of inefficiency?
iii. Do the type of jobs performed in ANAMMCO require training and manpower development?
iv. Do the staff of Anambra manufacturing company ANAMMCO see the need for training?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
The findings from this study shall aid the policy makers in Nigeria to desing proper and potentially viable and implementable programme for the working class. The study will also ascertain the accomplishment and realization of the objective of the Industrial Training Funds (ITF) decree No. 26 (2) of 1971. In reality, little research findings are available in this country and else where especially from the private sector that is capable of assisting policy makers and company executives in properly discerning the national socio-economic goals.
This investigation shall take a national view of the training and development needs of the Nigeria workers in terms of skills, knowledge, attitude to work, self confidence, efficiency and effectiveness, high quality production, reduction in labour turnover, industrial accidents, wastages and production re-call levels.
If employees can generally find their ways into working for which they qualify through training and development, the use of human talent will be maximized for the benefit of society in general.
The Industrial Training Funds (ITF) for manpower training and development. Furthermore, the outcome of this research will serve as information for further study on this topic. Although many research have written on this and similar related topics, records show that none used Anambra manufacturing company (ANAMMCO) as case study.
Finally, it is expected that students of behavoural science will benefit from this research work as the study will be made to highlight the relationship between the variables under consideration.
The research will put up suggestions based on findings and this findings if properly applied will lead to high job effective operations by all levels of employees / staff.
Business education is no exception to the rule that all education is to some extent an act of faith, but managerial education has an element of fashion too, and the increased demand for it can be explain partly by the desire of companies not to neglect something that competitors do, and partly by the persuasiveness of the institutions providing the courses. Owen S. Hiner (1968:89).
A. O. Ocheoha (1975:17) stated that education also enhances the efficiency of labour. This includes general education, vocational education, technical education, and on-the-job training. A sound, overall education makes a worker more competent, more conversant with his work and therefore more productive and a greater assent to his employers. This is why most civilized countries invest a great amount of their revenue in education of all sorts.