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MARKET ACCEPTABILITY OF LOCALLY MADE COSMETICS PRODUCTS (BEAUTY AIDS) IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF FEMALE CONSUMERS IN ENUGU URBAN)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
During the pre and post-independence period,Nigeriamarkets were flooded with foreign goods including cosmetics. There was a great enthusiasm for specialization in importation for sale rather in local production scale. The scramble for the importation of ready-made goods into the country for sale was so great that people gave little attention for local production or even simple goods that was other wise very difficult to produce.Nigeriasuddenly became a market for all sorts of goods, as result of this trend that Nonyelum (1981) reported in his book that during this period “Nigeriahad become a dumping ground for all manner of foreign gods”.
An observation of facts for consumption activity inNigeriaduring this period is consumer’s market preference for imported good.
Olusoga (1983) on his part pointed out thatNigeriabusiness attach little importance to the marketing function in top marketing decision-making and that inNigeria. The business do not care much about customers satisfaction, Agbonofoh (1985) attributed it to “psychological factor”. He said that some individuals search for distinctiveness, exclusiveness and egoism and in the course of buying, seek out those products, which can counter these qualities.
In order to encourage local manufacturing products including cosmetics, import restrictions were introduced under the comprehensive import supervision scheme in 1979. Certain classes of goods were banned from being imported and restrictions were imposed on importation of certain other goods through the requirement of import licenses or increase in import duties. This was a tremendous opportunity presented to indigenous producers to launch newNigeriabands that should vie for consumer acceptance in it product categories affected. 1986, the structural adjustment programme (sap) was introduced and new industrial policy is well as export scheme programmer was promulgated. These introductions improved the manufacturers sectors in the economy. The local manufacturer still in attempting to face the challenges posted by the government, introduced a very wider range of cosmetic products into the market. Many brands of body lotions and creams, soaps, hair creams, foot care product etc are now produced locally. Some of the products include lipsticks, cortexes, relaxers, creams, lotion, rosy clicks, massacres, activators etc. products like relaxer, cudgel activators for jerry curls and other hair treatment, which were exclusive product locally. These products are seen in all markets and manufactured in other parts ofNigeria.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
Many problems are involved in the market acceptability of locally made products, and they include the following:
LOW QUALITY: Consumers believe and accept that all the locally made products are inferior. Average Nigerian if two goods of same quality are presented to him i.e. locally made and foreign made, and ask to pick one, he must pick the one which is foreign made even if quality of the locally made is higher.
It does not give the desired satisfaction. When a consumer buys a product, he expects a satisfaction from such product that made him to buy it. But if the satisfaction is not there, he will not try to but it again. That is the case of locally made products. Locally made cosmetic are not reliable. Most of our locally made cosmetics are not reliable. You cannot rely on that you will buy the same quality and quantity tomorrow. Some of them will be god at the beginning when the product is produced but during the long run, the qualities always change.
It does not smooth the skin: consumers said that the locally made cosmetic does not smooth the body like the foreign ones. It is not manufactured with care. Locally made cosmetic are not manufactured with care. It is the problem withNigeriamanufacturers. If you go to their factories and see the environment you will never like to use the product again. Their process of production and the environment where they produce the goods are unhygienic and many people do not but locally made goods because of that reason.
Using inferior raw material has masteredNigeriamanufacturers. They don’t normally use the ready raw material for the manufacturing of cosmetic but inferior ones. They believe that is cheaper than using real one. And it has side effect. So it makes many people not to buy the locally made cosmetic.
Locally made cosmetic are not well packaged but foreign ones are properly decorated with packaging. And well-decorated cosmetic attract women too much. So it makes them to prefer foreign cosmetic than local ones.
These are some of the problems associated with the subject matter.
1.3 PROBLEM (S) THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
A situation that worsened the condition was the issue ofNigeriabig market and products. The research observed that most classic shops and market stocks are more of foreign made cosmetic products (beauty aids) than locally made ones. This stores and market display more of foreign made cosmetic (beauty aids) than locally made ones for consumer by petty traders because of inadequate capital.
This dependence on foreign goods continued up to the period of oil boom inNigeria. Later on, many Nigerian business men were courageous enough to set up some manufacturing plant in unsaturated oils such as stearate and palmeite esters. Other active ingredients include urea, ammonia, igarson, hydroxguinoline, saligaylate and other patented compounds. Lotions are more liquidized form of creams. They contain less oil creams. Oil can be pure extract such as olive oil or mixture with efficacious nutentrem such as epidermal oil.
Powder can be plain or pure substances which others may contain substance such as menthol and bipivarcaize an anesthetic substance that soothes the skin.
Soaps are ester of steate, palmiate orglyceate of sodium. They may be perfumed, medicated by addition of medical substances such as hydroxyuinoline inganser or mercuric oxide. They are used according to need or want. Lipsticks are made of waxes fats and oils and pigments mounded into smooth cream stacks. They are made strong enough to resist breaking when handled.
Mascara is a mixure of pigments wax and syntheic resin in volatile solvent. It is water resistant and is applied to the eye lashes with a wet borough.
Eye shadows in a creamy preparation of mixed pigment with lanolin and petroleum.
Shampoos are liquid on jelly like soap containing of coconut oil Sodium hydroxide, patented substance, which prevents brittleness of the hairs. The concentration of these active ingratiate is a function of its strength made to a given hair texture.
Hairs conditioners contain a lot of lubricant often patented, used to nourish the hair, some of the active ingredients include egg extract, albumen, and cod oil.
Hair lotion contains dilute gum solution, which make hair easier to set and ensure a bouncy texture. It is used in hair setting.
Nail polish removers are made of active and small quantity of vegetable oil or lanoline.
REFERENCES (USING A P A METHOD)
1. Audcey, Haber (1197): General Statistics London, Addison
2. Kotler, Philip (1976): Marketing Management Planning and
Control; Englewood Cliffs, prentice-Hall Inc.
3. N.A. Hark and John (1981): Stapleton, Glossary of marketing
2nd Edition; London, William Hanuman Limited.
4. Nwokoye, G. Nnayelum (1989): Market Analysis Buyer
Behaviour and Market Segmentary. Modern