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MOTIVATION AS A MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKERS (A CASE STUDY OF ENTRACO LIMITED ENUGU)
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over some years ago, psychologist, manager and the student of management have given increase attention to the need for human motivation at the work place. They found this concept useful to both explaining human behaviour, particularly in work situation to increase the productivity of workers.
The purpose of motivation is to optimize one’s performance and to attain a standard of excellence in any endeavour manager in all types of organisation are continually faced with the problem of vast difference that exist in the formance or output of individual workers some employees also perform at high level and need little or no supervision and appear to enjoy what they are doing, other employees perform only at marginal level and required constant attention and direction and are often absent from their duty posts. The reason for the difference performance are varied and complex, involving the nature of the job, the behaviour of the manager and the characteristics of the workers. The big question is, how can the manager maintain the high performance of the first group and also increase that of those producing marginally, when it comes to those highly productive on the job, to performing with little or no direction and to being a real contribution to the organization. What can only usually say is the cause? Does money count first i.e. the desire to draw bigger pay pocket? Is threat the principal factor? Or is it the sheer enjoyment of being part of the busy co-operative – professional team that makes some employees perform high? It has been recently shown that this variation is caused by the motives of workers, whether the employee or manager are high or low in achievement motivation make a real difference in the effectiveness of financial incentive.
Several studies have shown that offering additional financial reward for doing a task does not make a strongly achievement oriented person to work harder or better. A group of aggressive achievement minded salesmen would certainly be angry if their extra effort were not recognized with much greater financial reward. Yet offering them bonus is not what produce the extra effort, this may seen like a psychological distinction without a difference, but the interpretation of the bonus plan genuinely effect performances.
People with relatively low achievement motivation, on the other hand, will work harder for increased financial rewards, however, does the money got by doing it interest them primarily as a major of accomplishment? Rather, it has other values for them.
This work therefore will attempt to probe into the motivational tools employed by the management ofEnuguStatetransport company limited to motivate it employees. The finding will help to evaluate the problem and prospect of the organisation in the area of motivation and to suggest ways of improvement.
Enugu State transport company limited is a big company and also a strategic one because of the place of transportation in any economy.
The government invested a huge amount of money to set up ENTRACO and therefore, expected reforms from the investment that is why it is a profit – oriented organization. It is only through effective performance of the employees that returns from the investment can be achieved. This is why it is necessary to know how they are being motivated to work and achieve their organisation’s objectives.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ORGANISATION
Enugu State Transport Company Limited (ENTRACO) came into existence to alleviate the transport problem facing the people of the state.
The then Anambra State Government attempted to tackle the situation and that give birth to the Transport Company of Anambra State (TRACAS) launched in 1988. This was with the intention to provide cheap, reliable and efficient transport service to the people. But with the state creation exercise by the then head of state Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, the EnuguStatecame into existence, the assets and liabilities of TRACAS were then shared between the two state i.e Anambra and Enuguand with it, came the birth of Enugu State Transport Company Limited on the 10th of October 1991.
In October, 1996, more state were created under the head of state, Gen. Sani Abacha, Ebonyi State were created out of Enugu State which led to the sharing of Entraco’s Assets again between Ebonyi and Enugu State.
After that, ENTRACO inherited 17 operational buses. As at 1997 ENTACO’S staff strength fell to 120. The same year 1997 ENTRACO made a loss of eleven million naira, right now, ENTRACO does not have more than 7 (seven) cars both luxurious and some cars.
Infact, the Enugu State Government has made serious plan so that the company might go back to its former position.
ENTRACO now few depots located in different towns ofEnugu, Anambra and other state of the federation with its head quarter located alongEnugu– Abakaliki express road, Emene Enugu its major routes are:
Enugu - Abuja
Enugu - Port Harcourt
Enugu - Abakaliki
Enugu - Udi/Oji River
Enugu - Nsukka
1.0 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In a workplace individual employees have different aims and aspirations, for instance, some would prefer to work very hard and yet be satisfied at least for working hard, some employee aims might be just to contribute to the job, others might have aims of showing appearance in the office and would not like to be usefully engaged, still some would prefer working for short periods hence their aims would be to reduce the time they spend in the workplace to a minimum level. When duties and authority of jobs are carefully described, then it would appear that accountability and responsibility could be determined easily. In great many cases, this is true. However, in an organisation, responsibility of ten can be avoided very easily by using bureaucratic techniques originally designed to produce efficiency. Similarly, when a departmental conflict creates the need of co-ordinating decision, a non-responsible member/worker can avoid responsibility by basing a decision on the existing power structure, using history as the justification.
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA
This exercise is an investigative research work specially directed towards finding out how managers motivates finding out how managers motivators their workers. We are using theEnugustate transport company “ENTRACO” as our case study.
This research their fore limit itself to only investigating into the motivational tools the company uses in the management of its human resources. Some of the ways in which they motivate their workers include:
a) Wages and salaries: Employees consider wages as the most important way of motivating workers. It can provide a sources of motivation for employees to work effectively.
b) Training and development: The importance of staff development in any organisaiton cannot be over-emphasized. A training scheme teaches the relevance of jobs and motivation and the necessary skills to apply.
c) Promotion: This is the advancement to a higher rank. A higher level job demand a lot of responsibilities and it may be tasking on the individuals.
Other ways are also important include: job security, job enlargement, appraisal, fringe benefit, insurance etc.
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
There are some unique and difficult words in this project. However, they are carefully explained for easy comprehension of their meanings and the context in which they are applied.
1. Motivation: This simply means ensuring appropriate behaviours of workers in an organisation by providing an environment in which people can satisfy their human need through both their work and work environment. Motivation can be informed of promotion, bonus performance appraisal, salary increment, provision of trainge benefit etc.
Nuezynski and Buchanam (1985) defined motivation as “a decision-making process through which the individual chooses desire outcomes and set in motions the behaviours appropriate to acquired them.
2. Management: This is the co-ordination of human material resources in an organisaiton to achieve management goals. Umoh (1996). Defined management as the process by which people (managers) create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organisation through systematic co-operative human effort. It is also the process of getting things done by using other people to achieve a set of objective.
3. Tools: This mean any items acticle used to achieve an objective in an organisaiton. It is also an instrument or measure employed by management to achieve set objective in an organisation.
Tool also mean, the existence of infrastructural support, this things are more should be made available in the working places so that productivity could be increased.
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