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THE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY. (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC 9TH MILE PLANTED AT NSUDE)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Management asserted that managers are people that get things done through others. This implies that in getting things done, they have to take series of decision that will guide the activities of people oriented towards the attainment of organization goals. He further stated that management activities in organization are dominated by decision-making activity.
This implies. That decision making in organization is the everyday pro-occupation of managers.
In support of the view stated that decision-making is one of the most crucial activities of management. He further stated that the necessity to decide is the everyday pro-occupation of management of organization whether small enterprise or multinational corporation. In today there exist in organization some form of interaction, which to a large extent influence the behaviour of the people who work in them. Manager and employee alike interact in their bid to carry out their organizational goals.
Traditionally, mangers are known to exercise much influence and specifically their immediate subordinates. This has led them in many instances to continually make decision unilaterally, even in those that are within the competence of their subordinate. However, in modern management practices this practice is no longer popular, hence there is need for employee to have adequate representation in management decision-making. Emphasis now is place on individual or group participation in managerial decision-making presentation. Thus implies without going through representation. Here “Participation” as advice or recommendation or employees that accepted and taken into consideration by management in making decision.
In Nigeria today business organization are springing up daily. Most of there have majority by Nigeria employees. As these organization expend their organization structures becomes difficult and different categories of managers are employed to fill different positions. These managers no doubt will be in control of a number of workers, who will be subordinate to them they will also in the course of performing there managerial duties take variety of decision concerning work and concerning their subordinates. Various explanations were offered as to why other countries were not doing equally well. Explanations like the technological gaps, research and development gap and other economic and efficacy gaps have been offered. However, none of them could be backed up with any worthwhile or clear-cut evidence. It became natural, therefore to look for the explanation elsewhere.
On the basis of the above arguments Heller and will part (1981) discovered that America’s superiority was the result of that unique managerial style in contrast to European industrial autocracy.
The above then calls for one central question regarding the participation of employee in managerial decision-making. Morgan (1973) stated that there cause little argument concerning the motivational assumption that when an employee is allowed to participate in the decision-making process he will perform better.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Organization objective is achieved through organizational performance is the result of activities by organizational members as employees who play assigned roles. Participation, management requires that employees participate in deciding when work they do and how they do it.
One of the problems that come to mind is, what level or degree of participation is necessary in setting overall organizational objectives.
Organizational objectives set the tone for subordinate goals furthermore, there is a minimum level of order required to have a stable and meaningful organization. So the challenge of participatory management is to set the ber at which it will begin and the degree to which it will apply beneficially in the organization and its employees.
In NBC are employees given the opportunity to contribute in reaching decision affecting them? Are there areas where decision-making is the sole responsibility of top management? What is the problems interest in participatory decision-making and how could they be overcome? These and many others are the problem, which the researchers attempt to find solution to this work.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose objective of the study will be
1) To find out whether employees participate in managerial decision-making in organization.
2) To identify the detriments of effective participation in decision-making.
3) To identify the extent of employees’ participation in management decision-making
4) To determine whether participation by employees in management decision enhance or dis-enhance productivity in organization.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will disclose whether employees participate in management decision-making, extent of their participation and effect of such participation on their productivity. This study will equally disclose how employees can be positively motivated through decision-making for effective and efficient attainment of organization goals.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For easy understanding of the work by readers the following technical terms is necessary to “Interpreted” by the writer.
ORGANIZATION: This is an association of two or more people, working co-operatively towards a common goal under authority of leadership.
BUSINESS ORGANIZATION: This is an organization that gears all its activities towards economic incentive.
MANAGEMENT: This is the coordinating of all the resources of an organization both material and human through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organization objective.
PLANNING: This is the setting of objective and strategy for achieving the objectives.
PARTICIPATION: This implies the advice or recommendation usually accepted by management.
DECISION: This is the selected alternative in order to active a given objective.
DECISION-MAKING: This is the process of selecting alternative course of action in order to achieve a given objective.
THEORY ‘X’: This is the management principle, which assumes that an average human being has an inherent dislike for work and avoid if he can. He therefore must be coerced and directed before he can put forth adequate effort to achieve organizational goals.
THEORY: This is also management principle which implies that the creation of conditions such that the members of the organization can achieve their own goals best by directing the efforts towards the success of the enterprise.
TOP-DOWN: This is a form of authority by which information is passed down from the supervisor to the subordinates.
BOTTOM-UP: This involves the flow of authority from subordinates to supervisor.
Allen J. T. and Cohen, S. I (1969) “Information Flow in Research and Development Laboratories” Administrative Sciences Quarterly Vol. 14, No. 1
Appleby R. C.(1981), Modern Business Administration London. Pitman Publishing Co.
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Bruce H. I. (1924); “Up and Down the Communication Ladder” Harvard. Business Review Vol. 10.
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