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CIVIL – MILITARY RELATIONS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: CHALLENGES FOR THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES
The complexities associated with modern battlefields have influenced the crafting of strategy towards employment of technological products for reasons of lethality and operational fluidity. Also, humanitarian considerations have become essential, leading to the adoption of the Manoeuvrist Approach to Warfare (MAW) in place of the Attritionists’ Approach to Warfare that demonized the profession through the last centuries. Without prejudice to humanitarian concerns associated with the MAW, in populated areas remain pronounced, thereby necessitating military engagement in relieving affected civilian populations.
The importance of good relation between the military and civil populace cannot be over-emphasised (NATO Civil-Military Co-operation, 2001:1-1). A number of internal security operations that the Nigerian Armed Forces is currently conducting in the Niger Delta and other parts of the country calls for a co-ordinated approach to the integration of the civilian dimension into operational plans. This is to avoid misinterpretation, misrepresentation of the intentions and actions of the military. This is important to ensure that internal security (IS) operations do not undermine National Security. It is in this light that this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the relationship between CMR and National Security?
- What are the effects of CMR on National Security challenges?
- Could CMR be partly panacea to attainment of National Security?
- What policies and strategies are required to guide CMR toward enhancing National Security?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To establish a relationship between CMR and National Security.
- To highlight the effects of CMR on National Security challenges.
- To establish that CMR if accorded its deserved priority could be the solution to many National Security challenges.
- To proffer strategies for CMR as a factor towards solving Nigeria’s security challenges.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
There is a conventional notion that a country is most secured when its security apparatus are potent. This has resulted into nation states placing much premium on the concept of national security often at the detriment of the citizens. This study therefore, seeks to establish the imperatives of mutual relationship between military and the civil populace towards solving Nigeria’s Security challenges.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would contribute towards enhancing alternative ways of handling security challenges in Nigeria. Its findings would assist the Nigerian State in formulating policies that would entrench great bond between the military and civilians in attempt to efficiently handle the nation’s security challenges.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The concept of national security has permeated in global discourse since the end of Cold War while CMR is a concept that is just coming on board in Nigeria. In the course of this study, the period spanning from 1999 till date shall be covered and only relevant literatures on this concept will be referred to.
This research work is impaired by some limitations. The key limitations were of secondary data to analyse the concept of CMR and national security of other developed nations. Although, the data used were from reputable international sources, the authenticity of their findings might not be insulated from bias. The concepts of CMR and national security challenges are intangible. Hence, the empirical testing of both concepts was relatively impossible. However, this did not affect the quality of research carried out and the outcomes of the findings.
1.8 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
The data used in this study were largely collected from secondary sources. This include data on some selected countries concepts of CMR irrespective of the names it is called. Additionally, data were obtained from research of relevant literatures and publications. These formed the basis for the comparison of the variables. Furthermore, it aided the study in assessment of the performance of Nigeria in human security when compared to selected countries. This study employed both descriptive and inferential statistics for the analysis of data.
The descriptive statistical tools that were used were tally method, frequency table, percentages, pie charts and bar charts. The tally method was used to allocate tally marks to responses to each answer options. These were then summed up and frequency tables were drawn for each relevant question indicating the available options and the respective frequency of response. The percentage technique was also used to analyze the figures obtained from the frequency tables and pie charts as well bar charts were used to provide a vivid representation of the outcome.
1.9 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
There have been various schools of thought worldwide on what constitutes CMR. Various postulations became necessary as the subject helps build cordial relationship between military and civilians toward achieving nations’ security collaborations and attainments. CMR found its relevance in Nigeria considering the unhealthy unprecedented security challenges facing the country. It further found its relevance as a palliative measure toward solving ethno/religious insurgences and agitations which have taken a front burner in Nigeria society. It is evident that there is a direct relationship between CMR and Nigeria National Security situation. Hence, the need to adopt CMR in totality in Nigeria.