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AN ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACTS OF MARINE POLLUTION TO SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT (CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIA NIGER DELTA REGION)
The work analyzed marine pollution and impacts in sub Saharan Africa to shipping operations and marine environment, (Case Study of the Nigeria Niger Delta region) is sectioned into five chapters. Chapter one dealt with introduction to the study. Chapter two reviewed the positions of other authors and chapter three dealt with the research methodology. Chapter four and five dealt with data analysis and recommendations respectively.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background Information 1
1.2 Problem Statement 6
1.3 Research Objectives 7
1.4 Hypothesis 8
1.5 Significance of the Study 9
1.6 Scope of the Study 10
2.0 Literature Review
2. 1 Overview of Marine Pollution 11
2.2 Marine Pollution by Hazardous and Noxious substatnce
2.3 The Non Tanker Spill/Bunker Oil Pollution 14
2.4 Causes of Marine Pollution in the Niger Delta 16
2.5 Consequences/Impacts of Marine Pollution in the
Niger Delta 17
2.5.1 Human and Socio-Economic Development of the
3.6. Prevention of Marine Pollution Regulation and Rules 23
3.6.1 Special Rules for Oil Pollution Damage 24
2.7 Environmental Protection Laws and Oil Mining
Companies in Nigeria 25
3.0 Research Methodology 30
3.1 Description of the Study Area 30
3.2 Research Design 30
3.3 Method of Data Collection 31
3.4 Data Limitation 31
3.5 Method of Data Analysis 32
3.5.1 Summative Approaches 32
3.5.2 Simple Percentage 33
3.5.3 Incremental Averages 34
3.6 Test of Hypothesis 34
4.0 Presentation of Data, Analysis of Data and Discussion of Findings 36
4.1 Data Presentation 37
4.2 Data Analysis 39
4.3 Discussion of Findings 41
4.4 Test of Hypothesis 45
5.0 Summary of Findings Conclusion and
5.1 Summary of Findings 47
5.2 Conclusion 48
5.3 Recommendation 48
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The incessant problem of environmental pollution and
degradation especially of the marine environment occasioned by oil spill, exploitation and lifting, gas flaring, and introduction of Noxious and harmful substances into the marine environment has over the years caused the destruction of aquatic life, vegetation and the ecosystem. Ironically, the above problem has never been given adequate national attention. Unwholesome practices of ships engaged in coastal trade in Nigeria territorial waters such as sewage disposal at sea, introduction of hazardous substances into sea, chemical fishing activities and even abandonment of wrecks has equally constituted a serious problem of marine environmental pollution and this has continued to go on unchecked. This problem has invariably alienated the indigenes of the affected geographical regions from their traditional sources of earning good living which is fishingand agriculture, thus subjecting them to un told hardship.
Furthermore it has impacted negatively to the development of
the Nigeria maritime transport system.
The research also identified the following specific problems.
(A) There is increasing rate of maritime pollution emanating from oil exploitation and shipping activities which has constituted a serious threat to the development of the
(B) Inefficiency of governmental agencies with the responsibility of protecting the marine environment has
made it possible for ships involved in the pollution of the
African and Nigeria waters to go unpunished over the
(C) There is the problem of lack of record of vessels involved in the oil lifting trade which has over the years been involved in the pollution of the marine environment.
(D) Lack of or of adequate manpower involved in the policing of the marine environment to ensure compliance to marine environmental laws and regulations.
(E) There is a lack of understanding of the impacts of the adoption of MARPOL 73/78 by Nigeria as a maritime nation of worth.
(F) There is lack of understanding of volume or quantity of oil
being spill on annually basis in the Niger Delta region of
Nigeria which has caused serious environmental problems over the years.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The research identified some goals, and objectives which it
seeks to achieve. The major objective of the research is to
analyze the problem of marine pollution and the effects in sub Saharan Africa using Niger Delta of Nigeria as case study. The following are the specific objectives of the research;
(1) Since oil and gas resources is the major pollutant to the
Niger Delta marine environment, the study seeks to
ascertain the number of times and quantity of oil being
introduced into the environment through spillage on
annual, monthly and daily basis over the period covered by the study the adequacy of marine environmental laws, regulations and enforcement officers policing Nigeria territorial waters to ensure compliance to the rules.
(2) To know the number of ships that has been arrested over the years for contravening the MARPOL rules which Nigeria adopted as a means of marine pollution control in Nigeria.
(3) To assess the impacts of marine environmental pollution to the people of the region
(4) Assess the efficiency of governmental agencies in ensuring compliance to laws and regulations regarding marine environmental pollution.
(A) HYPOTHESIS 'A' There exist no serious evidence to show the contribution of oil spill from ships to marine
environmental pollution and degradation in the Niger Delta region.
(B) HYPOTHESIS 'B' There is no serious increase in number of ships (tankers) engaged in trade in the Niger Delta areas as to cause pollution and degradation of the marine environment in the region.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since marine environmental pollution IS L.'1e introduction into the marine environment and adjacent lands, any substance capable of causing an undesirable and harmful change within the environment and ecosystem. The region depends a lot on the environment for its living and any adverse alteration of the environment will affect adversely the living pattern and standard of the people. The collapse of the marine environment will mean the collapse of the agricultural and economic activities going on in it, and invariably the collapse of the people s standard of living especially in the Niger Delta where majority depends on the marine environment for fishing. farming as well as transportation. A study on the evaluation of marine pollution and the effects in Nigeria is therefore important and significant because it will alert maritime practitioners on the need to protect the marine environment from hazardous effects of environmental pollution. Moreover, the study will enlighten the government on the need to save the region from the untold hardship being caused by oil spillage in the area so as to attract interest to the need for the preservation of the regions traditional occupation of fishing and farming and enthroning a healthy environment. The research will equally be important to students of maritime colleges for reference purpose