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Effect of Entreprensuhip Development on the Youth Employement
1.2 Background of the Study Studies on the menace of unemployment have created a huge vacuum in the mind of many scholars both in Nigeria and the world at large. This is so because the rising rate of poverty and other social vices have stimulated the economic and political crises experienced in recent time. World Bank (2004) in its report predicted that poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa is set to rise and by 2015 constitute 50% of the world poorest people. However, Nigeria is naturally gifted with both material, human and entrepreneurship skills but the realization of the full potential of these opportunities has been inhibited by the implementation of inappropriate and unsustainable industrialization policies at different periods (Thaddeus, 2012; Adebobola, 2014). Government at all levels have come up with several policies designed to stimulate entrepreneurship development via small and medium scale enterprises based on technology transfer strategy, were unsuccessful in the achievement of the desired goals as it led to the most indigenous entrepreneurs turning to distribution agents of foreign products in contrast to building in-country entrepreneurial capacity for manufacturing, mechanized agriculture and expert services (Adebobola, 2014). According to Chu, Kara, Benzing (2010); Nwaka (2005); Oyelola Ajiboshin, Raimi, Raheem and Igwe (2013), between 45 and 60 percent of the urban labour force engage in small private enterprises which is believed to have contributed greatly to the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship on the other hand has been beneficial because the Nigerian private sector comprising of small and medium enterprises provides diverse employment opportunities for over 50 percent of the country's population and 50 percent of the industrial output (Ariyo, 2005; Oyelola et al, 2013). Many other countries have been able to strengthen and transform entrepreneurship sub-sector to such a vibrant and exciting industry such that they have been able to reduce considerably their unemployment and poverty level because of the huge and enormous contribution of the sub-sector to their economic growth and development (Onugu, 2005). Unfortunately, this cannot be said about Nigeria as the case is different. Citizens particularly youths in Anambra State are said to be confronted with poverty and unemployment which is caused by lack of capacity and essential productive skills for both creative employment in existing organizations and for self-employment (Sagagi, 2010). Many people are unemployed because they have not acquired the kind of skills that are frequently demanded in the environment they operate. Others are unemployed because their skills have been rendered obsolete by technological changes or because they have no skills at all (Kpakol, 2006). With inadequate skills and few opportunities, Anambrians particularly the youths in the state face a future of low-wage employment, unemployment and under-employment in the informal sector with little security and prospects (Dandago & Muhammad, 2014). The expansion of employment opportunities in the state is far below the growth in population because of lack of productive skills and investments. This reality leaves youth in the state without any sustainable means of livelihood, as a result of which, poverty and unemployment have become the ugly twin faces of the state’s economy. There is no doubt that one of the problems confronting many nations is how to combat the challenges of unemployment, with entrepreneurship development seen as a remedy to this problem.
1.3 Statement of Problem Unemployment as it is called has been an issue of discourse in Nigeria. This has grown large that the situation cannot be addressed by mere campaign or words of mouth (Nwankwo & Ifejiofor, 2014). It requires the combined efforts of both individuals and the government of the country in particular and the world at large to formulate a lasting strategy to curb this menace. Unemployment in Nigeria has affected the youth and the economic development of the country from a broad spectrum of socio-economic perspective. It is obvious that the situation especially that of youth unemployment affected Nigeria's progress in several ways. Apart from the economic waste it brought to the nation, it also constitutes political unrest for the country (Ipaye, 1998). According to Ezie (2012), the unemployment situation in Nigeria is disturbing and even more disheartening that the country's economic condition cannot absorb an optimal proportion of its labour force. This situation has resulted in the continuous increase in crimes and other social vices experienced in our society in recent time. To salvage this ugly situation, several strategies have been developed in all spares of human endeavours. These strategies are all found in entrepreneurship. Taiwo (2014) observed that in any given economy, entrepreneurship development always give birth to job creation which will force people to do something that will better their lives and the country at large. He evaluated the relationship between job creation and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. It was clear from his observation, job creation or employment opportunity in an economy can be traceable to entrepreneurship training and development. This is similar to the study of Nwachukwu & Ogbo (2012), Bandal (2010), Baba (2013), Okoye, Iloanya & Udunze (2014), Ebiringa (2012), Asad, Ali & Islam (2014), Snapps & Hamilton (2012) and Dandago & Muhammad, (2014). Therefore, many studies have been conducted on this area in many part of the world as well as in Nigeria, but none has been done in FCT, Abuja. This study sought to investigate the extent of relationship between entrepreneurship development and youth employment in a case study of some selected business in Kuje area council.
1.4 Objective of the Study The broad objective of this study is to investigate the impact of investigate the extent of relationship between entrepreneurship development and youth employment in a case study of some selected business in Kuje area council. Specifically, this study examines;
1. The extent of relationship between entrepreneurship training on youth employment in FCT.
2. The extent of relationship between entrepreneurship traits on employment youths in FCT.
3. The extent of relationship between entrepreneurship empowerment on employment youth in FCT. 4. To examine the entrepreneurship challenges affecting employment youth in FCT.
1.5 Research questions 1. What is the relationship between entrepreneurship training on youth employment in FCT? 2. what is the relationship between entrepreneurship traits on employment youths in FCT? 3. What is the relationship between entrepreneurship empowerment on employment youth in FCT? 4. What is the relationship between entrepreneurship challenges affecting employment youth in FCT?
1.6 Statement of Hypotheses However, this study is further hypothesized as follows; 1. There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship training on youth employment in FCT. 2. There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship traits on employment youths in FCT. 3. There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship empowerment on employment youth in FCT. 4. There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship challenges affecting employment youth in FCT.
1.7 Significant of the Study This study is significant in that it will help to identify possible factors that will reduce unemployment rate in Nigeria. This study is significant in the sense that it will: Highlights the importance of entrepreneurship training and its impact on unemployment reduction in Nigeria. One of the SDG (Sustainable Development Goal) goals highlights education (training) as a critical factor to reducing poverty and dependency. Allow the identification of the concept and framework of entrepreneurship development and its contribution to Nigeria’s economy. Generate greater awareness among tertiary institutions on the importance of having proper and practical strategies for acquiring entrepreneurial skills. Provide useful knowledge on factors that might have impact and contribute to the successful adoption of entrepreneurship training by all Nigerian youths.
1.8 Justification of study This study period is considered to be relevant because of its immediate impact on the future of Nigeria, through which one can discover if the role education plays currently will facilitate national development.
1.9 Scope of the study