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1.0       INTRODUCTION         
1.1       BACKGROUND
Investigative journalism is the reporting of research findings by a journalism is the reporting research findings by a journalist. It could be regarded as the event of the day to day activities with the uses words, sounds or picture to satisfy human curiosity with a word that is always interested in knowing what is new.
The introduction of investigative journalism and its media are electronic and print which have reduced a lot of ignorance from the society because form the observation both print and electronic media journalist disseminate to the public.
The journalists are those that practice journalism. They are they who will gather the news from the public and send it back the public also and it also exposes that part of a news story that is not  reported or ignored by the ordinary reporter.
The journalist are those that practice investigative journalism they are the one who will gather the news from the public and send it back to the public also.
Mike Jampson, director of UK journalism ethics charity media wise, called for The Daily Telegraph to reveal whether it paid for the computer disc leaked to it containing information about British MP5 expenses claims. He was addressing a media professionals work stream on Investigative journalism- a two edged sword on 25 July during a conference on ‘trust and integrity in the global economy’ held in Caux, Switzerland. Sometime investigative journalism that reveals wrong doings may involve breaking the law, he said and the telegraph should be ready to defend itself in court if the material had been obtained by unlawful means.
The paper had properly published a series of scoops on the scandal of MPs systematic abuse of their expenses claims. It was in the public interest and no  jury would convict the paper, he believed.
Mps who were supposed to get an example were behaving irresponsibly and lawfully.” The scoops had changed the political agenda and thinking, which  will never be the same again, Jempson said, none the less journalists too have to accept the consequences of their actions.
Therefore this research is to let people and the general public to know the level at which the hazard of journals or problem of journalism as been existing in countries especially in Nigeria.


This is to make the entire people in Nigeria to now what journalists are going through as a result of gathering facts, news in the working field.
The difficulties and problems they are facing and also to give recommendation on how to solve those problems. As much as it affects the most entire publics and journalists.


In order to arrive at a certain and logical conclusion and provide a concrete and genuine answer to a certain research question.
This work is to provide answer to the following fundamental research question.

  • How can we eradicate Hazard in journalism?
  • To what extence do you agree that Hazard affects Journalism practice in Nigeria?
  • To what extent do you agree that Journalist can avoid hazard in Journalism?
  • To what extence do you agree that Hazard in journalism affects Journalist in Nigeria

The significance of this project work lies on the problem journalist are passing through on their field. The hazard and how to tackle them especially this problems. In doing this, it will enable the people to know how the problem can be solved.


The scope of the study relate to the problem which journalist are passing through as a result of practicing journalism as a profession. The scope can also be called the hazard. The difficulty, the researcher also examine the hazards and find accurate solution to the problems so as to encourage the upcoming journalist who are in practicing it not to be panicking when they face problems at place of work.


INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM: Is defined as a day to day operation of gathering and transmitting of news which means journalism is primarily concern with giving out of information to the publics on regular basis. Therefore journalism is sharing of communication and ideas.
It also the ability to consult researcher and satisfy the human faculty through entertainment. It is also about getting people information on what is new, what is interesting and passing such information to the publics.
JOURNALIST: This is the person that practice journalism that is a journalist is a person that is involve in gathering and dissemination of information through an appropriate medium.
Journalist is also referred to as a person that is involve in gathering, editing and transmitting of information of current event to the public. This person usually works for the media.
This definition leave out many personnel involve in the mass communication and media organization.

Investigative journalism which is also known as precision journalism is the act of employing science into gathering of information and reporting it. It is the act of treating journalism as a science, adopting scientific method, it objective and ideas in the entire process of Mass Communication. According to Gambo (2004) “precision or investigative journalism is the kind of news writing using scientific procedures” the above definition shows that investigative journalism is the application of social and behavioral science research method to the practice of journalism. Therefore investigative journalism is sharing of information and ideas using a suitable channel of communication. It can also be said to be the act of delving deeper (through research) into an occurrence to knowing the unknown aspect of the event and report it in a more comprehensible means through a suitable channel of communication.
Some of the arguments against modern journalism are that it misses important stories too dependent on press release, easily manipulated by politicians and special interest and does not communicate what it does know in an effective manner. All these are justified but not caused by lack of skills and energy or dedication to what is just but the inability to applying information science, a body knowledge to attack the problems of reporting the news. Omoniyi (2004) made it known that it is the reporting of research finding by the journalist. Therefore, the tendency towards a low and investigative journalism in Africa has been dismissed particularly in such countries as Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal and many other countries.
To this extent, journalists in most black African countries particularly Nigeria, they now look at as a bunch of trained intellectuals who are filters, transmitters, organizers, interpreters of good news and indispensable in a rapidly growing economy such as that of Nigeria.
The above was  stated by Prof. Ralph A. Akinfeleye who made us to know more about investigative journalism and most journalists in some developing countries especially Nigeria.


According to Philip O. Ewuola (2003:8) “career opportunities for journalists does not base on only a journalist but any person wishing to enter into investigative journalism trade and must everything it takes. Although people without investigative journalism background such as English graduate and others could still be found in many Nigerian media houses.
The various job market that can offer employment and career opportunities to a journalism graduate include:
The press, the newspaper, the magazine and book publishing houses while other are radio station, television station, films industries, government information offices and press relation officers. A prospective journalist strive to be trained formally in a tertiary institution before picking up a job in the media industry.
This would have given him a better preparation for the task ahead and it will also indicate to his likely employee that he is not an ignoramus in the art and science of journalism when he is compared to an English of history graduate. He should have an upper hand in the employment market.