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THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION AND WORKERS’ PERFORMANCE IN THE HEALTH SECTOR (A STUDY OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE ASABA)
1.2 HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION
Job satisfaction is one of the most studied areas in organizational psychology and is generally defined as the “attitudes and feelings people have about their job. Positive and favourable attitude towards the job indicate job satisfaction and negative and unfavourable attitude towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction”
Armstrong (2008), most researchers agree that job satisfaction is closely related to behaviours and attitudes at work.
McKenna (2000) Job satisfaction is a multifaceted concept related to employee’s attitudes and feeling towards his or her job Mullins (2005) and they are interdependent, according to Crossman and Abou-Zaki (2003)
Amos, Rislow and Pearse (2008) Postulate that employee experiencing high satisfaction levels contribute to organizational commitment, Job involvements, improved physical and mental health, and mental health, and improved quality life both on the other hand. Job dissatisfaction on the other hand, Culminates in higher absenteeism, turnover, labour problems, labour grievances, attempts to organize labour unions and a negative organizational climate. Globler et al (2006) and Robbins (2003) support that when employees become dissatisfied excessive absenteeism, turnover and grievances, They maintain that while it is difficult to put a monetary value on job dissatisfaction, estimates can be made of the economic cost of the results of job dissatisfaction such as absenteeism, turnover and employee grievances. Hence, as part of their social responsibility, many managers strive to create rewarding and satisfying work environments for their employees.
Wood et al (2004), stated that job satisfaction can b achieved when an employee becomes one with the organization employee becomes one with the organization, performs to the best of their ability and shows commitment; Moreover, Job satisfaction and performance are positively influenced by rewards Kreintner et al (2002) identified various factors influencing job satisfaction, such as the need for management to create an environment that encourages employee involvement and manages stress in the workplace.
Mayer and Botha (2004), in most Africa companies, there is a low level of employee job satisfaction, resulting in a lack of commitment to performance and the achievement of performance and the achievement of organizational goals. In south Africa, Human resource managers have job satisfaction and productivity at the top of their list of concerns Glober et al,(2002). This implus that job satisfaction affects employees’ performance and productivity.
Sy, Tram and O’ttara (2006) state that workers productivity depends on the amount of time an individual is physical ly present at a job and also the degree to which he or she is “MENTALLY PRESENT” or efficiently functioning while present at a job. Hence, companies must address both of these issues in order to maintain high worker productivity.
This may occur through a variety of strategies that focus on employee satisfaction, health, and morale. However, some research indicates that employee satisfaction does not necessarily contribute directly to productivity.
Satisfaction may be viewed as a passive attribute, while more proactive measures such as motivation as more closely linked t behavioural change, performance and ultimately, to bottom line performance Clark, (2003). Employee retention involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the Nel et al, (2008). Robbins and Judge (2009), employee loyalty is characterized by employees being committed to the success of the organization and believing that working for this organization is their best option. Not only do, they plan to remain with the organization: but they do not actively search for alternative employment and are not responsive to offers. Schermerhorn et al; (2004) stated that organizations face a lot of problems in employee retention these day, hence hiring knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an employer, but retention is even more important than hiring.
1.4 WORKER’S RESPONSIBILITIES
Employee responsibility is defined in general to : obey a lawful, reasonable order within the terms of the contract of employment, serve faithfully ; cooperate with the employer; perform duties with proper care and diligence; account for all money or property received ; indemnify the employer in appropriate cases ; and not to misuse the confidential information acquired while in service. It can also be defined as defined as a set of generally accepted relationship, obligations, duties that relate to an institutions impact on the welfare of society. Milter,(2003).
Harmon (1995) identified three dimensions of responsibility raised in western cultures-agency, accountability and obligation. Agency refers to individuals being answerable of their actions to other members of the community. Implying liability, accountability refers to individuals being subject to sanction when acting incongruently with formal guidelines, rules or laws. Obligation refers to duty of carrying out a moral requirement. Harmon suggested that obligation may represent the theme most commonly associated with the concept of responsibility, citing as an example the writings on responsibility by such philosophers as John Locke and Ben Johnson, who referred to positive and proactive behaviour towards others. Pava (1996) associated proactively with responsibility when he suggested the relevance of the ancient Jewish legal doctrine of ‘Lifrvim mishurat hadin’ (translated as beyond the letter of the law above and beyond the call of duty) to contemporary business ethics. With an understanding of the tension between the minimum that the law can require.
1.5 THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Job satisfaction is dynamic, it is a condition where individuals are contended or discontented with their jobs. Lack of job satisfaction lead to strike, work to rule, absenteeism, resignation, low performance and disciplinary problems. Intrinsic and extrinsic variables such as the structure and nature of jobs, the type of control, supervision, participation in decision making, pay, promotions affect the job satisfaction of an individual.
The shortage of healthcare professionals in Nigeria is well documented; it has reached such an extent that some hospitals are offering bonuses to lure healthcare workers from other employers. Every healthcare professional is an important part of the healthcare system, and shortage in any area creates problems for other cadres of workers.
1.6 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of job satisfaction and workers performance in the health sector.
The specific objectives are the following:
1. To determine the level of job satisfaction among healthcare professionals at Federal Medical Centre.
2. To determine the factors influencing job satisfaction among healthcare professionals at Federal Medical centre.
3. To determine the association between socio-demographic characteristic and job satisfaction.
4. To measure the relationship general satisfaction, the opportunity to develop, responsibility, patient care, time pressure and staff relations among healthcare professionals.
1.7 THE RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What is the relationship between job satisfaction and worker productivity?
2. Is there any relationship between patient care and worker productivity?
3. Is there any relationship between responsibility and workers productivity?
4. What is the relationship between staff relations and workers productivity?
1.8 THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
This hypothesis is to guide in carrying out this study and make necessary recommendation to the various bodies:
1. Ho: There is no relationship between job satisfaction and worker productivity at Federal Medical Centre Asaba.
2. Hi: There is no relationship between job satisfaction and worker productivity at Federal Medical Centre Asaba.
3. Ho: There is a no relationship between patient care and job satisfaction at federal medical centre (FMC) Asaba.
4. Hi: There is a relationship between patient care and job satisfaction at federal medical centre (FMC) Asaba