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POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. (A STUDY OF BABANGIDA’S ADMINISTRATION)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii Dedication iii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 6
1.3 Purpose of the study 7
1.4 Significance of the study 8
1.5 Research Questions 9
1.6 Scope of the study 10
1.7 Limitation of the study 10
1.8 Definition of terms 12
2.1 Historical Background 14
2.2 Character of the leadership 23
2.3 Structure of military government 36
2.4 Achievement of military government 37
2.5 Reason for military intervention 39
2.6 Process of return to civil rule 40
2.7 Summary of literature review 41
3.0 Research design and Methodology 44
3.1 Design of the study 44
3.2 Area of the study 45
3.3 Population of the study 45
3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques 46
3.5 Instrument for data collection 47
3.6 Reliability and Validation of instrument 48
3.7 Distribution and retrieval of the instrument 48
3.8 Method of data analysis 49
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 50
4.1 Data Presentation 50
4.2 Data Analysis 50
4.3 Discussion/Analysis of findings
5.1 Summary of finding, Conclusion and Recommendation 58
5.2 Conclusion 59
5.3 Recommendations 61
Appendix A 66
Appendix A 67
A CURSORY GLANCE AT THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF NIGERIA WILL REVEAL THAT UNDERDEVELOPMENT HAS PERSISTED IN SPITE OF INDEPENDENCE AND ABUNDANT RESOURCES AVAILABLE IN THE CONTRARY. THE CARDINAL QUESTION IS WHY HAS NIGERIA NOT DEVELOPED GIVEN YEARS IN INDEPENDENCE AND ABUNDANT HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES ESPECIALLY DURING GOWON THROUGH BABANGIDA’S REGIME. THIS WORK EXAMINES UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA VIS-À-VIS POLITICAL LEADERS FOCUSING ON IBRAHIM BABANGIDA’S ADMINISTRATION. CONSIDERING THE CRUCIAL POSITION OF LEADERSHIP IN ANY NATION. THE RESEARCHER PERSISTS THAT THE PROBLEM OF NIGERIA UNDERDEVELOPMENT CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD, OR DEVELOPMENT ATTAINED WITHOUT A REDICAL CHANGE IN THE PARASITIC AND EXPLOITATIVE CHARACTER OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IN NIGERIA. THE PERSISTENCE OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT CAN BE ATTRIBUTE TO THE CHARACTER OF NIGERIA POLITICAL LEADS. THE SOLUTION OF WHICH IS BY IMPLEMENTATION OF DIFFERENT KIND OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT, THE RESEARCHER ALSO FOCUSED ON THE BABANGIDA’S ADMINISTRATION. 210 WHICH IS 20% OF TOTAL POPULATION OF 240 COPIES WAS USED. DATA COLLECTED USING QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE ANALYSIS OF DATA WAS DONE BY THE USE OF SIMPLE PERCENTAGE. THE FINDINGS PROVED THAT BABANGIDA’S ADMINISTRATION WERE NOT PROPERLY MOTIVATED AND UNDERSTOOD THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This work examines underdevelopment in Juxtaposi with political leadership focusing on general Ibrahim Babangida’s administration with a view to x-raying the impact of political leadership in the underdevelopment of Nigeria.
This project will be centered on two variable underdevelopment and political leadership, underdevelopment as used in this project does not imply absence of development but as uncomparative term as a means of comparing levels of development (Ofiong 1980:10). According to Aja Akpaura (1998:48) under-development means: a relative condition in which a society lacks autonomous capacity to control and mobilize socio-economic formation for a sustainable economic growth and development necessary to effect physical mental, material and technological fulfillment without dependence on external stimuli.
Abali (2001:30), in his scholastic ingenuity view under-development as a situation in which the institution of a country in the periphery of international capitalism dependent relations with other countries at the centre of the internal economy. It is the subsidization of internal economy and political forces from the centre.
Underdevelopment implies lack of autonomy and its meaning characterized by poverty by some scholars for a country to be underdeveloped means that the economic potentials of the country or regime has not been fully develop. Desire for independent were socio-economically underdeveloped, because of imperial documentation and control of our governmental, economic and which by implication means expectation that we would become develop with independent (AKA 1981:88). Before the arrival of Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida’s administration Nigeria has witness five military government and one civilian government which is Alhaji Shehu Shagari’s government. Babangida’s administration came as a result of when he overthrown the government of Major Gen, Mohammed Buhari on 27th August 1985. This young man assume office without wasting time he adopted the title “President” instead of the usual head of state, when Babangida ushered in as a president of Nigeria people thought that the Messiah the need has come not knowing that the administration will record little or no achievement. The researcher is not trying to say that Babangida’s government did not record any achievement so far, but for we to evaluate the long stay of this very government you discover that the people of the country witnessed more underdeveloped period than development. Because Babangida assumed office as the 6th military head of state on 27th August 1985 stepped aside 29th August 1993.
The reason why the researcher is trying to use Babangida’s administration in Nigeria because this administration neglected the agricultural sector
which was the main stay of our economy and faced the (oil well). Babangida’s administration usher in and forget what was her mission and face the so called oil, Babangida accused the former government of negligence in agricultural section detaining politician news men and women whom criticize the government and not creation of job opportunities to the people of the country. So this administration came and forgets what brought him to seat and face the money from oil. Babangida’s administrations leave the country to poor socio-economic development and left the masses in an untold hardship, frustration and anger. Irrespective of long stay on seat as the president. His deceptive attempts to hand over power from 1990 to 1992 and then 1993, He was forced to step aside. Then failure to hand over to chief MKO Abiola these was seen as an abuse of people’s mandate.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The Nigeria nation is beclouded by the menace of under-development. This has resulted to economic hardship and social miscarriages on the citizenry. “Nigeria are having rough time, there is uncontrollable inflation, there is retrenchment, unemployment, factory closure caused by drastic deform in investment and divestments. Moreso, there is a sharp decline in the purchasing power and value of the naira, coupes of social service, low capacity utilization of industries and jobs security Nigerians are leaving below poverty line. Nigeria’s position as an under-developed nation has not changed even with flow of money from oil (Ikejani Clark 1995:132)
The above have become a bone of contention. The researcher hence intends to find out why under-development has persisted so many years after un-dependence in the presence of abundant human and material resources available to the government. Also with standing that Nigeria has series of leaders and leadership positions both civilian.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
i. To examine the ways political leadership contributed to the under-development of Nigeria amidst the abundant natural and human resources available.
ii. To ascertain if there is any way underdevelopment would be ameliorated considering the Nigerian situation presently.
iii. To find out the problems militating against the leadership in Nigeria in their efforts to shun the underdevelopment which is in its persistence.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The researcher through this project intends to put forwards the contribution of political leadership to the under-development of Nigeria. It stands to prove the importance and the indispensable of the political leadership on proffering solution to under-development of Nigeria. It will then equip us with the machinery of taking these short comings and providing solutions to its problems.
The relevance of this study will not be over-emphasized as it serves as a tools for further researches and students of this field.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Having seen that there is no way the under-development of Nigeria will be discussed or viewed without taking cognizance or understanding the issue of political leadership which is one of the distracting factors in the system. The researcher haven divide into this is now posing the following questions.
- In what way has the political leadership contributed to the under-development of Nigeria amidst the abundant natural and human resources available?
- Is there any way under-development could be ameliorated considering the Nigeria situation presently?
- What are the problems militating against the leadership in Nigerian in their efforts to curb the under-development which is in its persistence.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Any study or problems embark on is targeted on giving or extracting information from a particular environment and administration.
This study is expected, if handled well to cover the administrative apparatus or Babangida’s administration and over view of underdevelopment and political leadership. Not all the administration will be covered to have a focus of our study.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
For effective and efficient exploration of any course there must be potentials set back. If the course of carrying out the study the researcher was faced with a lot limitations. The identifiable ones are as follows; TIME: Time is one of the limitation in the study of this work.
In the first place, as this research work was carried out at student’s level the researcher has to apportion his time such that the demand for other courses could be met.
Availability of research materials, there was no sufficient materials in the library to bring up facts, that will be useful in the course of the study. Again the library accommodation was so small that it only contains few students.
The cost of transportation was one of the impediments. It was not of place you know about it that transporting myself from one location to another in a bid to collecting materials for the project was one of the hindrance and limitation.
The respondent did not help matters at the initial stage, my respondent were afraid to fill the questionnaire items. It becomes a difficult task for the researcher to convince them with enough reasons why it is necessary for them to fill in the gaps.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Scholastic: It’s connected with schools and education
Characterized: To describe or show the qualities or features of some thing.
Administration: The activities that are done in order to plan, organize and run a business school or other institution.
Oil Well: A hole made in the ground to obtain oil.
Socio-Economic: This is the use of economics in the study of the society.