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EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMMCO.)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It should be recanted that a decision is a choice where by a person forms a conclusion about a situation. Costello, 1. Wand Zalkind, S.S. (1963 P. 334), confined the term decision making, to a choice process, choosing one from among several possibilities, however, decision theory in Costello, T. w et al (1963, P 387) largely considers decision asking the process of making a single choice among course of action at a particular point in time this depicts a course of behavior about what must be done or vice versa. Decision is however, the point at which plans, policies and objectives are translated into concrete actions. Planning engenders decisions guided by company policy and objectives, policies, procedures and programmes. The aim of decision making is to channel human behavior towards a future goal.
Decision-making is however, one of the most germane activities of management. It has been the preoccupation of all the management of multifarious organization ranging from small-scale organzation to multinational corporations.
Managers many at times consider decision making to be the heart of their job in that they must always choose what is to be done. Who will do it, when where and most the time now it will be done.
Traditionally, managers influence the ordinary employees and specifically, their immediate subordinates in the organization. This has resulted in managers making unnatural decision even in areas effecting their subordinates.
In Germany, around 1951, a low enacted which provides for code termination and requires labour membership in the supervisory hoard and executive committee of certain large corporations. However the participation of labour in decision making process resulted to relatively and peaceful labour management relations.
Additionally, the Japanese management uses decision making by consensus in which lower-level employees initiate the idea and submit it to the next higher-level unit it reaches the desk of the top executive. If the proposal is approved, it is returned to the initiator for implementation.
It is in this context, that the research wishes to assess the employee participation in decision making and its impact on productivity in Nigerian public sector organizations, using ANAMMCO as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
There has been lost of controversy as to whether an employee should participate in managerial decision making or not. Some writers argued that employees should contribute in making decision more especially where it affects them or their jobs. It is expected that such participation will serve as training and testing ground for future members of upper management.
In Nigeria, experts that refuted the above assertion see the arrangement as a symptom of mal- organization. They maintained that, qualified, reasonably, honest and company oriented individuals are not available at these lower organizational levels. But, the big question is, qualified individuals really available? All these underlay the need for an investigation study.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this empirical study is to assess the impact of employees participation in managerial decision making in public sector organization in Nigeria with reference to ANAMMCO Ltd.
The specific objective are:-
1) To assess the impact of employee participation in management decision – making ANAMMCO Ltd.
2) To ascertain the impact of employee participation or non-participation in management decision on productivity of the organization.
3) To make recommendations based on the research findings.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses particularly on the impact of employee participation in decision making and organizational productivity using ANAMMCO Ltd., Enugu as a case study.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In a view to accomplishing this research work effectively the research poses the followings.
1) Do management staff make decision without pre and post discussion and consultation with employees?
2) Do management change decision when rejected by employees?
3) To what extent do employee participate in decision making?
4) How often do employees meet to discuss with managers?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The researcher formulates the following hypothesis based on the objectives and problems of this research work.
Ho: management staff makes decision without pre and post discussion and consultation with employees.
Hi: management staff make decision when rejected by employees.
Ho: That the management of ANAMMCO Ltd. do not change decisions when rejected by employees.
Hi: That the management of ANAMMCO Ltd. change decisions when rejected by employees.
1.7 SIGNFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will be relevant to the mangers and employees of ANAMMCO Ltd.. It will also be beneficial to other public sector organization in Nigeria- it will also be of prodigious importance to government, academicals potential and future researchers on the issue of employee participation in managerial decision making.
This empirical study is also germane to the researcher since it is a partial requirement for the award higher National Diploma in Business Administration and management.
1.8 LIMITATIONNS OF THE STUDY
A work of this nature is not easy to consummate or accomplish. And, as a result, financial problem, time constraints, apathy on the part of respondents and bureaucratic procedures involved in releasing data seriously affected the study.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Decision making – The selection from among alternative of a course of action.
- MANAGEMENT – management is made up of top and middle level management. Top management includes: share holders, board of Directors managing, Director or the chief Executive / General manager (ie management above departmental level) middle management includes heads of Department, managers, Deputy and Assistant managers.
- PRODUCTIVITY:- A measure of how well resources are brought together in organizations and utilized for accomplishing a set of results.
- GERMANE:- Relevant, important or pertinent.
- HEART OF THEIR JOB:- As it is used in the research work means their main job.
APPLEY, R.C (1981) Modern Business Administration 3rd Pitman Publishing Limited P.62
Costello, T. w and Zalkind, S.S, (1963) Psychology in Administration. A Research orientation text Engle word Cliffs, N.J PP.334, 387.
Koontz, H, O’ Donnell Cyril and weihrich H. 1980 management 7th ed. McGraw- Hall international Book company, PP 132- 133.