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ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN WASSCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA (2011 – 2015)
This study aims at analyzing the Students‟ Performance in (WASSCE) on the management of public senior secondary schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria 2011-2015. The study was guided by five objectives,(1)identify students‟ performance in Mathematics in WASSCE on the Management of public senior secondary schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015),(2)determine students‟ performance in English language in WASSCE on the Management of public senior secondary schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015), five research questions,basic assumption and hypotheses were formulated.Significance and scope of the study were discussed. Various literature on reasons for continuous mass failures in West African Secondary School Certificate Examinations performance among Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones were reviewed.The research Design was an ex-post facto in collaboration with descriptive research design. The population of the study comprises all the 46 Senior Secondary schools in the two Zones. All the 20 examination centers (schools)with 26,719 registered Students‟ were randomly chosen for this study.The instrument used for datacollection was score sheet of Students(Gazette).The research instrument was validated by experts, the two supervisors and other lecturers in the Department of Educational Foundations and Curriculum.Data were collected from 20 examination centers in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones by presenting letter of introduction. Kruskal-Wallis statistical tool was adopted to compare the mean achievement of subject/subjects to calculate the relationship between the variables of the study.Result shows that there was effect of management on public senior secondary schoolsin Students‟ Performance in Mathematics with highest mean in 2015 and lowest in 2011 in WASSCE in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones. There was effect of Management on public senior secondary schools in students‟ performance in English language withhigher mean in 2015, and lowest in 2013 in WASSCE in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones. There was effect of management on public senior secondary schools in students‟ performancein Science Subjects with highest mean in 2015 and lowest in 2011 in WASSCE in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones. Therefore, it was recommended among others that, The State‟s ministry of education and the management of secondary schools should organize regular special programmes such as seminars, workshops, conferences,provisions and management of Mathematics instructional materials and service training for senior secondary school teachers to improve their competence and apply any method that will fit a particular topic in Mathematics for better students‟ performance and to update their knowledge on the new development in other areas of specialization, School management should advice teachers of public senior secondary schools to encourage students to devote more time, effort to learning and reading in English language through constant practice in spoken English and listening to models, reading materials such as books, magazines, newspaper in English language and practicing writing of letters, articles, essays, participating in school quiz and provide libraries, create and manage students‟ club and societies for the management of students‟ performance in West African senior secondary school examination.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
- 1. Analysis: Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts or units in order to understand or gain better.
- 2. Students: Students or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
- 3. Performance: Is the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed in a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
- 4. WASSCE: Is a type of standardized test in West Africa. It is administered by the West African Examinations Council. It is only offered to candidates residing in Anglophone West African countries.
- 5. Secondary School: Is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage.
- 6. Management: Management consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization‟s resources in order to achieve the objectives of that organization or educational goals.
- 1. NP: Non - Parametric
- 2. NPE:National Policy on Education
- 3. WASSCE: West African Secondary School Certificate Examination
- 4. WTC: Women Teachers College
- 5. G.S.S: Government Secondary School
- 6. G.G.S.S: Government Girls Secondary School
- 7. S.S.S: Science Secondary School
- 8. SSCE: Secondary School Certificate Examination
- 9. FRN: Federal Republic of Nigeria
1.1 Background to the Study
Education in Nigeria is an instrument “par excellence” for effecting national development. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities, and individuals as well as government interventions. It is therefore desirable for the nation to spell out in clear and unequivocal terms the philosophy and objectives that underlie its investment in education.
Government‟s intention was that the far-reaching provisions set out in all sections of the policy should transform all aspects of the nation‟s life overtime. To this end, government set up a national educational policy implementation committee to translate the policy into workable blueprint that would guide the bodies whose duty would be to implement the policy. The committee was also to develop monitoring system for educational plan as it evolved. For the philosophy to be in harmony with Nigeria‟s national goals, education has to be geared towards self-realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, National consciousness, National unity, as well as towards social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological progress. According to Obanya (1993), several changes have occurred in the educational system in Nigeria since the Old African Society to the present day. These changes lack substance, despite the formation of educational theories formed with the hope of bringing positive and lasting changes. This unsteadiness in the system is attributed to inherited colonial system of education which lacked objectives and identification with any national goals thereby besetting it with ambiguities, contradictions and lack of uniformity in practice in different parts of the federation.
To rid the system of these inconsistencies and hindrance to a steady progress in education and national development process of change in the policy and systems of
education in Nigeria was launched formally in 1969 at the National Curriculum Conference held in Lagos. This conference led to the philosophy of education, on which a national policy on education was formed with a view to equipping the educational system with all that is necessary to launch Nigeria into the future politically, socially, morally and technologically.
Fafunwa (1971) added that any effective educational planning at all levels should reflect the national philosophy on education and development. According to him, educational planning in Nigeria must focus attention on the five main national objectives as stated in the Second National Development Plan of Nigeria which was endorsed by the federal government in 1970 as the necessary foundation,(National Policy on Education 1979).
With all these efforts, Nigerian secondary education which is the link between the primary and the university levels of education does not only occupy a strategic place in the educational system in Nigeria, but also prepares the individual to become useful within the society.Among the levels of education in Nigeria, secondary education which is the midpoint of the entire educational system is fast losing its relevance which among other factors is due to unsatisfactory and poor performance of secondary school students in public examinations (Onipede, 2003).
Management in organization is the function that coordinates goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, directing, staffing, leading and controlling an organization to accomplish a goal. Educational Management is the utilization of both human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish functions of teaching, extension work and research.
The National Policy on Education seeks to bring about a social, economic and cultural development in society by focusing on human resource development through education. Education there, must have more relevant curricular, be dynamic, and empower students to bring about desirable social changes while preserving the desirable aspects of our existing culture. The national developmental goals require the professional management of education to bring about the effective and efficient functioning of educational institutions.
The scope of educational management is wide and includes the history and theories of management science, roles and responsibilities of an educational manager along with the requisite managerial skills.Educational management in secondary schools involves the application of management principles in designing, developing and effecting resources towards achievement of educational goals (Okumbe, 2001). This effectiveness according to UNESCO (2009) is judged by the extent to which schools generally meet the expectations of the society within which they are established. Nigerian government has demonstrated commitment to the provision of quality secondary school education through allocation of financial resources, provision of trained teachers and establishment of quality assurance department. There are factors that researchers and school systems point when describing quality schools and features of schools that have been improved in effectiveness. According to Zepeda (2004) &Fullan (1991), such features include; commitment to success for all, flexibility and responsiveness, shared vision, climate of challenging and stimulating teaching, strong and fair disciplinary climate.
According to Lamb (2007), the most effective features were; foster connectedness, increasing the trust placed on students, provide tasks with immediate tangible benefits; make spaces within schools and curricula for diverse students‟ needs.
World Bank (2008) posits that much research has demonstrated that retention and the quality of education depends primarily on the way schools are managed, more than the abundance of available resources, the capacity of schools to improve teaching and learning is strongly influenced by the quality of the leadership provided by the head teacher. Concerned effort to improve school leadership is one of the most promising points of intervention to raise retention, the quality and efficiently of secondary education across sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigerian leadership training for secondary school heads was to improve quality of education.
According to Unugbro (2004), the most successful secondary school today are those that are translating modern management theories into practical action rather than continuing to depend upon traditional individual management experience trial and error method. Recent years have witnessed the failure of many secondary school (senior) public academics not because they are worthless but because they are poorly managed.According to Boyd & King (1983), education is a powerful instrument in transformation and modernization of society a commitment to the belief has characterized by intensive effort to extreme expansion of educational system opportunity have resulting phenomenal increase in higher number of school and in the study of environment of the students. Unfortunately, the problems of staffing, planning, communication, directing, lack of facilities if the environment to be a conducive atmosphere, inadequate of institutional material, problems of administration strategies, higher population, finance and political reason have been apparent for the desire to
lessen the effectiveness of their impediment in the teaching and learning process. In this era of technology, it is an advantage to introduce it to in other to promote the secondary school training and other scientific approach on the teaching industries. Secondary schools in Zaria and Giwa Education zones are confronted with the problems of management as such secondary school in more generously the problem of management has become a difficult task in public secondary schools. Due to social and economic change that is taking place in the community coupled with the over increment in knowledge and dynamic method of doing things, this study is therefore designed to examine the problems of student‟s performance in WASCCE on the management of public senior secondary schools in Zaria and Giwa education zones, Kaduna state, Nigeria.
Educational management focuses on:
- The study of educational planning at macro levels, its goals, principles, approaches and processes and institutional planning and educational administration at the macro level.
- Decision making, problem solving, communication, information management and effective team building.
- Planning of curricular and co-curricular activities, curriculum and academic calendar
- Maintenance of school records, evaluation of Students‟ achievement
- Effective allocation of financial resources and the planning of the budgets of institutions.
Educational management aims at:
- Achieving an institutions‟ objectives
- Improving the processes of planning, organizing and implementing within the institution
- Creating, enhancing and maintaining a positive public image of the institution.
- Optimal utilization of human resources (administrators, non-teaching staffs, teaching staffs and students)
- Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of infrastructure
- Ensuring job satisfaction
- Creating and maintain a congenial and cohesive atmosphere
- Managing interpersonal conflicts, stress
- Improving interpersonal communication
- Building a relationship with the community
According to Nwokocha & Amadike (2005) academic performance of students is the standard for testing the educational quality of a nation; therefore, it is easy to maintain a high performance in internal and mostly external examinations.
Student‟s performance has been a subject of discussions and debate among scholars; because it is the most vital educational policy and indicator that stakeholders are interested in (Alaka, 2011). Xinyi (2006) informed that student‟s performance has been a subject of national interest and comparative studies among countries since the beginning of educational theory.
Aremu, Oluwole, & Fayowbo, (2001), while stressing the importance of academic performance in the educational system was of the view that academic performance is a
fundamental criterion by which all teaching-learning activities are measured, using some standards of excellence and the acquisition of particular grades in examinations to measure candidate‟s ability, mastery of the content, skills in applying the knowledge acquired to a particular situation. The current poor performance of students‟ and management of public senior secondary schools in West African Secondary School Certificate Examinations (WASSCE) in Nigeria is disturbing the minds of the parents, guardians, teachers, counselors and educationist.
Majority of candidates who sat for the May/June 2011 West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) recorded mass failure as only 31% have five credits including English Language and Mathematics (Uwadiae, 2011). The head of National office further disclosed that out of 1.5 million candidates who sat for the May/June, 2011 WASSCE examination only 472,906 candidates obtained five credits which include English Language and Mathematics. The implication of this results revealed, that only 31% would be eligible for admissions into tertiary institutions. West African Secondary School Certificate Examination also reported that 38% of the 1.67million students who sat for the exams passed with five or more credits including English language and Mathematics. WASSCE‟s website, www.WASSCEdirect.org (2016).
The West African Examination Council said 122 thousand Nigerian students sat for May/June 2012 senior school certificate Examination will not have any results, as their results have been withheld. Uwadiae announced the release of the remaining results in Lagos. 38.81% out of the 1.67million candidates that sat for the examination scored credits in at least five subjects including English Language and Mathematics on
increase of about eight per cent from 2011. The results of 1.54million candidates, 91.1% of the total candidates, have been fully released;while 150,874 candidates got a partial release of their results, because few of their subjects were still being processed due to registration and documentation errors. In 2013, total candidates who obtained five credits including English and Mathematics were 639,760, while in 2014, 529,425 candidates obtained five credits including English and Mathematics. It is also revealed that 1 million students failed WASSCE exam, 31% passed with five credits including English, Mathematics. 81,573 results were withheld.
The recent results released by in May/June 2015 Senior School Certificate Examination. speaking at a press conference, the head of WASSCE national office Charles Eguridu (2016) said the council withheld results of 118, 108 candidates who engaged in examination malpractices. He added that the candidates from public schools in the 13 states may not get their results unless their state government either pay up their registration fees or produce bank guarantees committing them to paying the debt. He also revealed that out of 1,593,442 candidates who sat for the examinations, only 616,370 candidates came out with credits in five subjects and above, including English language and Mathematics.
This study is therefore designed to examine and identify the level of performance of students by analyzing final year examinations results in some selectedPublic Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones of Kaduna State. The study is to find out whether the problem of poor performance of students existing in Zaria and Giwa education Zones or not.
Most of Nigerian schools of thought uphold the view that the performance was improving, while others argued that the performance level was falling terribly (Onipede, 2003). Also Adeyegbe (2002) added that there was a decline in students‟ performance in SSCE, as can be seen in the subsequent results released by examination bodies;
The results of Mathematics released by WASSCE from 2004-2007 was terrible, this because majority of the students perform very poor as indicated by the examination body, as follows; in 2004 only 33.97% got credit, in 2005 38.20%, 2006 41.12%, and in 2007 46.7% have credit. While in English language which is the official language and the language for teaching and learning in Nigerian schools; only 29.59% have credits in 2004,25.36% in 2005,34.48% 2006 and 29.94% have credits in 2007 Statistics office, WASSCE, Lagos, Nigeria 2009. The performance of students in all subjects in (WASSCE) Examination was almost the same because they performed very low as indicated.
Yunusa (2010), West African Examination Council recorded very poor results in 2008, only 23% passed SSCE, while in 2009, only 21.9% got the required credits. In 2010 May/June only 25% who sat for the examination passed with minimum university requirement. All these are barriers to every educational system. There is no educational system is problem free; however, the decay in Nigerian educational system is becoming disturbing and frustrating to the students & parents.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor management of public schools on students‟ performance in Senior Secondary Schools in West African Examination council (WASSCE) is becoming worrisome to
educational development in Nigeria and particularly in Kaduna State. Observations and reports from examination bodies revealed that a high percentage of public Secondary Schools students continue to perform poorly due to improper management of resourcesin Senior School Certificate Examinations. Over the years, the majority of students that sat for the May/ June West African Examinations Council (WASSCE) have been recording mass failure, not only in the area of overall performance of the students but also in the core subjects like English, Mathematics, Sciences subjects like (Chemistry, Biology, Physics), Geography , Technical and Vocational studies and History where the high spate of failure have been a dominant feature of the Students performance in the public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones of Kaduna State.
The growing rate of students‟ failures in West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) has injected worry into the minds of all those who have concern for Nigerian youths. In a state or country where a greater number of youths are school dropouts, social vices such as armed robbery, raping, cultism, kidnapping and others will be on the increase. Some products of today‟s secondary education system can neither usefully live in the society nor move into higher institution without their parents and or forgery. They cannot think for themselves or respect the views and feelings of others. They do not value the dignity of labor except for things that will give them quick money. There are fears that illiterate population of youths can be a fertile ground for terrorists, fanatics, miscreants and tribalism that can be manipulated by public secondary schools. Some other problems faced in educational management include; the teachers are lacking equipment and teaching materials, there are inadequate facilities in the laboratories and libraries, inadequate planning for enrolment population
of the students, unfavorable administration decision and improper management of human resources.
The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) results conducted by West African Certificate Examination Council (WAEC) justified the nature of poormanagement of public Secondary school on students‟performance in almost all the subjects offered by the students, more especially in English and Mathematics which are the pre-requisite for gaining admission into tertiary institutions and in other subjects area of specialization such as arts and social sciences, sciences, vocational and technical subject.
The performance in Senior School Certificate Examination May/June, 2004-2007:
showed that Mathematics 2004 33.97%, 2005 38.20%, 2006 41.12%, and in 2007 only
46.7% have credits. While in English language in 2004 29.59%, 2005 25.36%, 2006
34.48% and in 2007 29.94%, (Statistics Office, WAEC, Lagos, Nigeria 2009).
Characteristically, statistics revealed out by the two examination bodies, the National Examination Council and the West African Examination Council, which is the particular focus of this study, each time the results of West African Examination Council (WASSCE) examination are released, they point to the fact that students drawn from public schools have not been performing up to the standards despite the high investment which the government both at the federal and state levels, as well as the parents have been making in the sectors.In the overall subjects offered by the students in SSCE according to Yunusa (2010), in 2008, 2009, 2010, West African Examination Council recorded very poor result. In 2008, only 23% passed the SSCE, while in 2009
only 21.9% got the required credits and in 2010 May/ June only 25% who sat for the examination passed with minimum university requirement.
The out-cry on the persistent poor management and unpromising performances of many public Senior Secondary School students in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) in Nigeria is embarrassing. According to (Uwadiae, 2011), mass failure was recorded in 2011 as only 31% made five credits including English and Mathematics and also out of 1.5 million candidates who sat for the May/June 2011 WASSCE examination only 472,906 candidates obtained five credits which includes English Language and Mathematics. He also stressed that 587,630 candidates 38.93% obtained credits and above in Mathematics while 838,314 which is 55.34% recorded credits and above in English Language.
The results of May/June 2015 revealed that out of 1,593,442 candidates who sat for the WASSCE, only 616,370 candidates came out with credits in five subjects and above, including English language and Mathematics. In 2013, total candidates who obtained five credits in English and Mathematics were 639, 760, while in 2014, 529,425 candidates obtained five credits in English and Mathematics. One million students fail WASSCE examination 31% passed with five credits including English, Mathematics, withheld 81,573 results (Udwadiae, 2015).
Even though schooland management of human and material resources differs from one another in term of academic performance, it may be argued that such variation in performance is unavoidable. However, several factors among the numerous problems
confronting management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa education Zones will without doubt positively or negatively affect student‟s performance in WASSCE Examinations. Many of them lack infrastructures, facilities and equipment, such as books, libraries, science, vocational and language laboratories, maintenance of instructional materials for the teaching and learning process, maintenance of discipline, management and administration, inadequate inspection and supervision of school curriculum and time table by state ministry of education, interpersonal relationship between school and community, time management, teachers level of commitment, inter-personal relationship between students and teachers and students‟ welfare support services, lack of incompetent teachers and political appointment from above.
Other factors include students‟ indiscipline in schools, inadequate supervision of students conduct at home, lack of effective communication skill, lack of students participation in school decision-making, lack of students participation in co-curricular activities in schools, inaccurate techniques of evaluating student‟s academic work, poor attitude to school work, teachers qualification to teach in senior secondary school, students-parents relationships, inaccurate statistical data and lack of funds allocation for proper maintenance of human and material resources in schools and lack of teacher‟s motivation. These, therefore, have been a source of concern to the researcher in taking a decision to examine students‟ academic performance in (WASSCE) on the management of public schoolsfrom 2011-2015 in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State in order to find out the level of students performance, to see if their performance is improving or declining in the subjects thought and offered by the students in the area of this study, in single and group of subjects such as English language, Mathematics,
Sciences, Art and Social Sciences, Vocational and Technical Subjects and also to find out in which subject or group of subject the students performed better and to find out whether the management of human and material resources of public senior secondary schools on students‟ performance differ.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The Study is set to achieve the following objectives:
- Identify Students‟ performance in Mathematics in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- Determine Students‟ performance in English Language in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- Examine Students‟ performance in Science Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- Ascertain Students‟ performance in Arts and Social Science Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- Find out Students‟ performance in Vocational and Technical Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
- What is the performance of students in Mathematics in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015)?
- What is the performance of students in English Language in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015)?
- What is the performance of students in Science Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015)?
- What is the performance of students in arts and Social Sciences Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015)?
- What is the performance of students in Vocational and Technical Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015)?
This study is guided by the following hypotheses
- There is no significant difference in the Performance of students in Mathematics in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- There is no significant difference in the performance of students in English Language in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- There is no significant difference in the performance of students in Science Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- There is no significant difference in the Performance of students in Arts and Social Science Subjects in WASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
- There is no significant difference in the performance of students in Vocational and Technical Subjects inWASSCE on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011-2015).
1.6 Basic Assumptions
- It is assumed that proper management of human and material resources will help improve students‟ performance in Mathematics.
- Proper management of human and material resources in English Language likely have significant difference in Zaria and Giwa education Zones.
- Students in Science oriented Secondary schools where proper management of human and material resources are available will probably perform better than other schools in Zaria and Giwa education Zones.
- Performance in Arts and Social Science Subjects is likely to be best than that of Science subjects where management of human and material resources are available.
- The performance of students in the twenty schools in each subject/subjects is likely to differ significantly as influenced by management of human and material resources.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Considering the importance of secondary education in Nigerian educational system and the increasing in mass failure in WASSCE on the management of public senior secondary school, it has become imperative to explain some basic truth to staff of Zaria and Giwa Education Zones to enlighten them to know the level of performance of students within the Zones, whether they are performing very well or below expectation.
It would also be of significance to the respective school authorities in the state to take corrective measures within their authority through adequate planning of resources to meet the demands and guide their action and future of public schools‟ staffs and students for successful teaching and learning process in schools, especially Zaria and Giwa Education Zones.
Also to the state government and officials of Ministry of Education (Inspectors and Administrators) in order to take right decision on the provision of necessary facilities to help in teaching and learning process which will help improve students‟ performance on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones Kaduna State, Nigeria. It would also be of significance to parents to supervise their child/children‟s work at home in order to improve their performances.
The study will also inform the parents of the capability on the management of various Public Senior Secondary Schools within Zaria and Giwa Education Zones.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This research work on analysis of students‟ performance in West African Secondary Schools Certificate Examination (WASSCE) on the management of Public Senior Secondary Schools is limited to some Public Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria and Giwa Education Zones Kaduna State, Nigeria between the years 2011-2015. The scope of the study is restricted to 20 examination centers public schools under Zaria and Giwa Education Zones that have presented students for WASSCE examination for at least five years. Due to large number of Public Senior Secondary Schools in these Zones, the researcher will not cover all public schools in the two Zones of the State which consists of (46) Public Senior Secondary Schools. Zaria Education Zone has (33) Public Senior Secondary Schools, while Giwa Education Zone has (13).