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ASSESSMENT OF SUPERVISORY ROLE PERFORMANCE OF PRINCIPALS ON TEACHERS’ DUTIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KOGI STATE
The study is on the assessment of supervisory role performance of principals on teachers’ duties in secondary school in Kogi State. It identified the perceived effectiveness of principals in the supervision of teachers’ duties some of the objectives of the study were to examine the supervisory role performance of principals on punctuality of teachers, to determine the supervisory role performance of principals on teachers design of lesson plan/note, to examine the supervisory role of principals on teacher’s evaluation of students and to findout the supervisory role performance of principals on conduct of extra curricula activities in secondary schools in Kogi State. The related literature review was based on the variables in the objectives of the study. Also concept of duty and meaning of supervisory role was reviewed. Five research questions, five null hypotheses were formulated based on the objectives. Survey research design was used andthe population of the study includes 244 principals, 2,280 teachers and 6,800 SS 1 and SS 2 students. The sample size was determined usingNwana technique ofpercentage and stratified random method. The sample size is 548Structured questionnaire was used using Likert rating scaleand content validity was used. The pilot study was carried out using five schools outside the sampled schools 5 principals, 25 teachers and seventy students. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach alpha and the reliability coefficient is .9310.analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level the findings revealed that principals used attendance register, they made sure that teachers prepared lesson plans/notes before going to the class to teach among other findings. Some of the recommendations of the study were that principal should intensify more efforts in supervision of teachers and students punctuality, that relevant textbooks should be provided to help teachers in preparation for their lesson and writing of lesson plan/note. Principals should always ensure that teachers break the content of each topic to be taught and enter into the diary and also that government and principals should ensure that the number of students in each class do not exceed 40-45 for effective evaluation and management of students. Also principals ensured that teachers evaluate students through continuous assessment, more sporting facilities should be provided for schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
Supervision is as old as the school system. Supervision has undergone series of evolution since the colonial era. It is directed towards sustaining teaching and learning process in the educational system. This is because education plays an essential role in the growth and development of any nation socially, politically and economically (Akinwumi, 2002). Ojogwo (2001) opines that supervision is the art of overseeing the teaching-learning process making sure that the school is administered and managed that will lead to an effective achievement of educational objectives He stressed that supervision as a field of educational practice with clearly delineated roles and responsibilities did not fall from the sky fully formed, rather supervision emerged slowly as a distinct practice, always in relation to the institutional academic, cultural and professional dynamics that have historically generated to the complex agenda of schooling.
Kochhar (2007) opines that the principal holds the major position on the supervision of teachers through effective and efficient supervision of teachers’ lesson plan and lesson note, punctuality, adherence to curriculum content, evaluation of students and conduct of extra curricular activities he stressed that principal as the head of a school is the architect of the quality of activities in the schools and the quality of academic achievement of students and teachers dedication to duties depend on the supervisory role of the principal.
It becomes obvious that principal supervisory role should be done diligently in order to influence teachers’ duties. The desired expectation in education could only be achieved through effective and efficiency supervision since it creates the awareness of sound education.
Some of the supervisory role of principal as stated by Dianne (2004) includes:
- Supervision and monitoring the work and behaviour of teacher in order to improve individual teachers competence no matter how proficient they are deemed to be and provide students with quality learning.
- Instructional leadership and curriculum development
- Staff personnel administration
- Students personnel administration
- School community relationship
- Organization and structure.
According to Fullan (2000) supervisory role of the principal includes:
- Supervising teachers lesson notes and making sure teachers use appropriate teaching methods and instructional aids.
- Organizing mini-teaching within the teachers and allowing teachers to go for conferences, seminars and workshops.
- Monitoring of teacher’s punctuality to school and to teach in the class.
- Supervising teachers’ evaluation of students and conduct of extra curricular activities.
- Establishment of cordial school and community relationship.
The principal oversees the activities of both teaching and non-teaching staff in the school system using various supervisory techniques that conform to the generally accepted principles of education. He also sees that high standards are maintained in school.
Raines (2004) opines that overwhelming responsibilities and demands of the principal professional positions are constant challenging. In this age of increased accountability he added that principals are expected to manifest exemplary performance in an ever increasingly number of fronts. One of such fronts is the area of professional development of teachers under his command.
A principal who performs his supervisory role is responsible for monitoring and coordinating the activities of teachers and students in a friendly atmosphere.
The International Institution for Educational Planning (IIEP) believes that the broadest approach to understand “supervision services”, as covering all those services whose main functions is to supervise, control, evaluate, advise, and to support teachers and students. Nakpodia (2006) defined supervision as that part of school administration which has particular pertinence for the appropriateness of instructional expectation of educational programs.
Akinwumi (2002) sees supervision as all efforts of designated school officials towards providing leadership to teachers and non-teaching staff aiming at the improvement of instruction. It involves the stimulation of instruction. It involves the stimulation of professional growth and development of teachers, a selection and revision of educational objectives, materials of instruction, methods of teaching and the evaluation of instruction.
A teacher is a person charged with the responsibility of helping others to learn and behave in new and different ways. Teachers who are committed to work are enthusiastic about their topic and delight in sharing what they have learnt. No system of education can rise higher than its teachers. The way to child centered education can only be through teacher. He stands at the most important point in the educational process. Therefore the principal as a supervisor has to constantly monitor or supervise the teachers in order for them to be committed to their duties.
Fisher (2012) asserted that effective supervision of teachers can reinforce and enhance teachers’ commitment to duty, teaching practices that will contribute to improve students’ academic performance and have a profound effect on the learning that occurs in the classroom. He stressed that supervision is one of the most critical functions of the principal.
David (2009) stressed that a teacher who is committed to their duties demonstrate zeal to work, punctuality to school, have full knowledge of the subject to teach and getting lesson plan ready before teaching. He further stressed that a committed teacher is always full of confident, stimulating and responsible and willing to perform their duties diligently.
In the same vein, Olowo (2000) and Kochhar (2007) elucidated the technical and professional qualities of teachers in the following manners:
- Mastery of the subject matter
- Enthusiastic about the subject of specialization through research and further studies.
- Adequate planning before teaching and during implementation.
- Effective management and control of the class.
- Prompt use of reinforcement.
- Use of problem solving and inquiry methods.
- Love for and commitment to teaching profession.
- A sound knowledge of methods.
- Effective use of instructional materials.
- Use of questionnaire techniques.
- Command of language of instruction.
It is obvious that the position and importance of supervision in schools can not be overemphasized considering the history of school supervision in Kogi State. It is against this background that the researcher has interest to study the assessment of supervisory role performance of principal on teachers’ duties in secondary schools in Kogi State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the light of this research the following problems necessitated the research in carrying out the research.
In Kogi State Secondary Schools, there have been series of non-challant attitude of principals toward their supervisory roles which has led to many teachers and students not being punctual to school. According to Jimoh (2007) opines that Failure on the part of the principals supervision of teachers preparation of lesson plan/note before teaching has made them not to organize their lesson properly which has defile the importance of lesson plan/note. Also teachers do not break the curriculum content into scheme of work as a result the topics are not arranged sequentially and this make them to teach from the complex topic and makes learning difficult for the students (Ibrahim 2009)
(Bello 2012) teachers has failed to use instructional materials while teaching because they do not write lesson plan/note. James (2009) stressed that most times teachers dodge away from the school during extra – curricula activities leaving the students to walk around the school premises this has resulted into many students running out of the school premises to engage in other activities.
However evaluation is a key factor to determine the outcome of learning unfortunately teachers do not take evaluation of students serious and this has lead to poor performance of student in internal – and external examinations (Baker 2010) Donald (2010) opines that teachers have not be given much attention to students evaluation and as such contributes to poor performance of students.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives drawn to guide the study are to:
- Examine the supervisory role performance of principal on punctuality of teachers and students in secondary schools in Kogi State.
- Determine the supervisory role performance of principals on teachers’ design of lesson plan/note in secondary schools in Kogi State
- Examine the supervisory role performance of principal on teachers’ evaluation of students in secondary schools in Kogi State
- Find out the supervisory role performance of principal on conduct of extracurricular activities in secondary schools in Kogi State
- Determine the supervisory role of principal on teachers’ adherence to curriculum content in secondary schools in Kogi State
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were drawn to guide the researcher in finding solution to the existing problem.
- What is the supervisory role performance of principals on punctuality of teachers and students?
- What is the supervisory role performance of principal on teachers’ design of lesson plan/lesson note?
- What is the supervisory role performance of principal on teachers’ evaluation of students?
- What is the supervisory role performance of principals on the conduct of extra curricular activities?
- What is the supervisory role performance of Principal on teachers adherence to curriculum content?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher.
H01: There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and students on supervisory role performance of principal and punctuality of teachers and students in secondary schools in Kogi State.
H02: There is no significant difference in opinions of the principals, teachers and students on the supervisory role performance of principal and teachers’ design of lesson plan/lesson note.
H03: There is no significant difference in opinions of the principals, teachers and students on the supervisory role performance of principal and teachers’ evaluation of students in secondary schools in Kogi.State.
H04: There is no significant difference in opinions of the principals, teachers and students on the supervisory role performance of Principal and conduct of extracurricular activities in secondary schools in Kogi.State.
H05: There is no significant difference in opinions of the principals, teachers and students on the supervisory role of principals and teachers’ adherence to curriculum content in secondary schools in Kogi.State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The researcher came up with the following basic assumptions that:
- Principals’ supervisory role has positive influence on the punctuality of teachers.
- Supervisory role of principal assist teachers in designing lesson plan/note.
- Supervisory role performance of principal has enhanced teachers’ evaluation of students.
- Supervisory role of principal influence teachers’ adherence of curriculum contents.
- Supervisory role of principal helps to guide the conduct of extra curricular activities.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The researcher came up with the following points as significance of the study.
It will help the State Ministry of Education to give better training to principals through workshop and seminars. It will also help to strengthen the teachers’ dedication to their duties.
The study will also help the principals and teachers to work together as a team in order to bring about improvement in secondary schools in Kogi State and the study will also help the Principal to have more knowledge and skills on the supervisory roles of principal.
The study will also help the principal and the teachers to take evaluation of students more serious as this will determine the excellence performance of students in external examinations because evaluation is very important in assessing academic progress of students.
Future researchers will find the findings from this research useful because it will give them more opportunity for similar assessment not only teachers duties but also in other aspect of school supervision.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is carried out in twenty one secondary schools in eight Local Governments in Kogi State with twenty one (21) Principals, three hundred and thirty seven SS1 and SS2 students and one hundred and ninety (190) teachers. The research is limited to SS1 and SS2 students because of their maturity and understanding in filling the questionnaire. the twenty one (21) principals used were appointed as principals based on the criteria of Kogi state teaching service commission board