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ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF CITIZENSHIP AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF YOUTHS IN NIGERIA
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which citizenship and leadership training programmes influenced the physical fitness, social, emotional and adventure skills development of youths in Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was the self-developed questionnaire. It consist of six sections on each the variable of youths development in physical fitness development, social fitness development, emotional fitness qualities, mental fitness attributes of youths development and adventure skills development of youths in Nigeria. This population for this study was drawn from students in secondary schools, Colleges of Education and Universities during the 2013/2014 academic session and the ex-post facto research design was used for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents according to their institutions and time of training at the centre. Using the random sampling technique, a total of 800 respondents were administered the questionnaire and only 707 representing 88.3% were duly filled and returned. The descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, percentage and the cumulative means were calculated for each item in each section of the questionnaire. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistic was used to analyze the data. The findings in the analysis revealed significant influence of citizenship and leadership training programmes on the indices of physical fitness attributes of youths who participated in the programme (p = 0. 000). The analysis also revealed that citizenship and leadership training programmes significantly influenced social behaviour patterns of youths (p = 0.000) Furthermore the results showed significant influenced of the training programmes on the emotional behaviour development, moral development and adventure skills development of youths in Nigeria (p = .000). Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that Citizenship and Leadership training programmes enhanced the development of physical fitness attributes of youths that included strength, muscular endurance, stamina and flexibility. It also improved social behaviour pattern of youths which was revealed by their enhanced self-confidence, patience and the ability to handle challenging tasks requiring emotional stability appropriately. It was further concluded that Citizenship and Leadership training programmes enabled the youths acquired critical thinking skills and knowledge for intellectual interaction. It was recommended that adequate provision should be made to stimulate and encourage researches on Citizenship and Leadership Training on youth development in Nigeria. Citizenship and Leadership Training should be made mandatory for all students in Secondary Schools and Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
The Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre of Nigeria was founded in March 1951 at Victoria, Cameroun. The Centre in Nigeria was established by act of parliament promulgated in 1960 and published in the supplement of the official Gazette (extra ordinary) No. 45 Vol. 47 of August, 1960. The Motto of the Centre is “Built the Man Build the community”.
Generally, citizenship and Leadership training focuses on developing behaviour patterns of individuals to contribute positively to societal and organizational growth. Citizenship behaviour is viewed as individual behaviour that is discretionary and not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system but which in the overall enhances the effective functioning of an organization (Organ, 1998; Chelladurai, 2006). Discretionary organizational behaviour means the behaviour encompasses all of the little things that individuals in an organizational context do of their own violation which contribute indirectly to organizational effectiveness (Organ & Podakoff, 2006). Common citizenship behaviour pattern occurring within organizations may include attitude like a recreational employee may come to the work place before the scheduled time to “tidy up” the place; an accounting staff within a hotel and tourism club may step up to the receptionist desk to assist the receptionist at a time of heavy demand and an experienced football coach may help the novice coach with settling into the job. These are organizational citizenship behaviour patterns which may promote organizational performance by lubricating the social and moral machineries of the organization, reduce friction and increase efficiency (Podakoff, Ehearne & Mackenzie 1997). Based on the foregone, the benefits of citizenship behaviour patterns are to free up resources within individuals that promote and sustain productivity in the organization, enhance co-workers performance, coordinate group activities and make the organization a more attractive setting to work in.
Human resource researchers have identified varied types of citizenship behaviour patterns that include conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, civic virtue, peace maker, cheerleading, altruism among others (Chelladurai, 2006; Podakoff, Ehearne & Mackenzie 1997). Conscientiousness behaviour patterns beyond minimal requirements in aspects and adherence to rules and regulations. Sportsmanship means willingness to accept less than ideal circumstances without complaining small thing in working conditions. Civic virtue refers to behaviour indicating sincere concern about the work group and organization through participation and involvement in their affairs while peace-making aims at reducing conflicts among members and at resolving conflicts in a peaceful manner and cheerleading gears towards encouraging others to perform well and toward applauding their accomplishment.
One of the most important processes in the management of sport organizations and competitions is leadership. Ivancevich and Matterson (2002) noted that leadership is the process of influencing others to facilitate the attainment of organizationally relevant goals. Similarly, Tosi and Mero (2003) viewed leadership as a form of organizationally based problem-solving technique that attempts to achieve organizational goals by influencing the action of others. In most sport situations, the leadership of administrators, coaches and organizing secretaries help employees understand their roles, performance expectation relationship to organizational goals and the reward system. These definitions imply that leadership is a behavioural process that is interpersonal in nature and aimed at influencing and motivating members toward group goals. Therefore, as a behavioural process, leadership focuses on what the leader is and what he/she does, which are both genetically oriented and the product of training.
Since the attainment of independence of Nigeria in 1960, the nation has continued to grapple with numerous issues that border on character, peaceful coexistent, stability, leadership, developmentally oriented projects that would enhance cordial relationship between different cultures and geographic location (Opadiran, 2006).
The National Youth Development frame work is perceived by Mceetya (2000) as a process which prepares youths to meet challenges of adolescent and adulthood life. A well-coordinated and progressive citizenship and leadership training programmes should provide experiences that build in youths social, moral, emotional, physical and cognitive competencies. This therefore demand that a national youth development initiatives should be strategically focused on positive developmental programmes in a broader perspective to help young people make transition from adolescent to adulthood happy, productive and successful within the immediate society and the nation. National youth Development Policy of Jamaica (2003) reported that youth development is a multi-dimensional process through which young persons are assisted to meet their basic developmental needs and to build individual assets and competencies which assist the youth to functions and succeed as adults. The general aims of education, physical education and sport are fashion to enhance human growth and development that will make transition to adulthood easier, as sport programmes are link to cognitive, social, physical, emotional and moral development. Furthermore, Youth Development Policy of Michigan (2002) stressed that youth development is a positive empowerment initiative where emphasis is on four basic principles of clear thinking, greater loyalty, and larger service and better healthy living. The National Youth Development Policy (2007) is guided by value systems that are in the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria that stresses social justice, equity of opportunity, transparency and accountability, self-reliance, hard work and entrepreneurship, unity and cooperation and respect for human right. The national policy of education also stresses that education should develop in the learners‟ mental, physical, social, emotional and spiritual abilities of students
Generally, the ability of an individual to understand his feelings is an important aspect of mental health. The ability to handle emotions appropriately in varying situations make one to be looked upon as a good citizen and effective leader. Emotional fitness can be considered as the ability of an individual to react to situation appropriately base one’s age, maturation and for the situation at hand (Federal Ministry of Education: NCE Course Book on PHE, 2007). An individual’s behaviour is judged to be appropriate in line with his age as he acts appropriate to the situation. Such an individual could be said to possess some level of emotional fitness control. Some of the observed qualities of an emotionally fit person includes sense humour, love and affection, self-reliant, realistic in setting achievable goals, awareness of potentials and limitations, not selfish rather selfless in service, accept himself as a person (self-awareness).
The virtue of morality among leaders and followers is a dwindling phenomenon in Nigeria, where huge sums of public funds are diverted to personal pockets. Opadiran, (2006) reported that moral growth and fitness can be seen in the direction of harmonized behaviours with social values, personal integrity and universally accepted reality. An individual with good moral judgment should be able to exhibit values and behaviours that include increased capacity to trust people, greater integrity in relationship among team members, dissolution of barriers to communication, cooperative attitudes, enhance self-respect, general attitude of faith and confidence, fulfillment of individual potentiality, zest for living. On the basis of these virtues, Chukuma (2003) defined morality to involve virtues of positive decision making which enables youths to distinguish very important matters that guide their actions towards making them live as useful and good members of the society.
The environment in which we exist and operate is highly fluid and has the potentials of becoming increasingly turbulent. Human beings are very close to experiencing the threshold of great changes, requiring youths to respond adequately to these changes (Gandonu, 1999). Youths are usually influenced by sporting programmes in citizenship and leadership centres such as solo survival scheme, camp craft/bivouacking, rock climbing, scrambling and abseiling; which are aimed at developing the adventure skills in self-confidence, self-reliance, courage, determination, improvisational ability, vocational skills, group – cohesion and cooperation, (Instructors handbook 1976). Wuest and Butcher (2006) stressed that adventure or innovative programmes are outdoor programmes that take the form of educational experiences where the environment become the “laboratory”, a setting which offers an excellent opportunity for wholesome attitude development.
1:2 Statement of the problem
The Nigerian Youths are faced with high level of socio – economic uncertainty and volatility thereby becoming the most vulnerable segment of the population. It has been observed that the youths of this country no longer have physical competencies to explore the talents and abilities in them through community and group activities in the scout and the Man O‟ War as it used to be in the 1970 and 1980s. They are observed to be low in most indices of physical fitness as compared to their counterpart of the 1970s for group and community productive social engagements. They are also observed to lack of initiative and adventure experiences that will foster true appreciation and concern for personal and communal developments.
They lack social citizenship competencies; they show lack of compassion, lack of self-discipline, lack of desire to build relationship with peers/colleague, stressful relationship among others.
Youths in Nigeria have continued to show lack of interest in National values, they lack spirit of hard work, lack patriotism and shows disloyalty to National symbols and anthem.
It is no longer news that youths in Nigeria lack Health and physical competences which is exhibited through evidence of low attitudes to personal hygiene. They also observed to be engaged in undesirable behaviours like drugs abuse, political thug grey, kidnapping and other anti-social behaviours. They are also engaged in corruption and other indices of bad leadership practices that are inimical to the development initiatives of Nigeria. Recently, youths are found to be the tools mobilized for ethnic violence and religion conflicts. The youths often show evidence of lack of emotional competencies by their inability to trust, act appropriately in difficult situations. It is evidence that youth are audience in street violence, mob action, demonstrations, truancy in schools, examination malpractices, poor academic performance, reluctant to conform to societal norms and values. They are also involved in deviant behaviours, like absenteeism in class, sleeping in class, membership of cultism with accompanying behaviour of killing and murdering, excessive drinking of alcohol, hemp smoking, rape, unwanted pregnancies and abortion among many others.
Generally, youths have been found to be audiences to most social problem of this Nation. These problems and many other must have necessitated the establishment of Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre in Nigeria where the focus is on the development of the physical, social, mental, emotional, moral and adventure development which are indices of responsible citizenship and effective leadership practices.
1:3 Research Questions
The following research questions have been raised for the purpose of this study:
- Would Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of physical attributes of youths in Nigeria?
- Would Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of social behaviour patterns of youths in Nigeria?
- Would Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of mental abilities of youths in Nigeria?
- Would Citizenship and Leadership programmes influence the development of emotional behaviour patterns of youths in Nigeria?
- Would Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of emotional behaviour patterns of youths in Nigeria?
- Would Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of adventure emotional behaviour patterns of youths in Nigeria?
1:4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of citizenship and leadership training
influenced the physical fitness, social behaviours, moral development and adventure skill development of youth in Nigeria. More specifically the study intends:
- To find out the extent to which Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the physical attributes of youths in Nigeria.
- To find out the extent to which Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of social qualities of youths in Nigeria.
- To find out the extent to which Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the development of mental abilities of youths in Nigeria.
- To find out the extent to which Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the moral development qualities of youths in Nigeria.
- To find out the extent to which Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence the emotional development qualities of youths in Nigeria.
- To find out the extent to which Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes influence adventure skills development of youths in Nigeria.
1:5 Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions have been made for the purpose of this study:
- Citizenship and Leadership training programme can influence the physical fitness of youths in Nigeria.
- Citizenship and Leadership Training programme can influence the social development of youths in Nigeria.
- Citizenship and Leadership Training programme can influence mental development of youths in Nigeria.
- Citizenship and leadership training programme can influence the moral development of youths in Nigeria.
- Citizenship and Leadership Training programme can influence the emotional fitness of youths in Nigeria.
- 6. Citizenship and Leadership Training Programme can influence the adventure skills of youths in Nigeria.
1:6 Research Hypothesis
Base on the research questions, the following hypotheses have been formulated for this study:
There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes on physical attributes, social behaviour patterns, mental abilities, moral attributes, emotional behaviour patterns and adventure skills of youths for worthy use of leisure time and enhance sport participation in Nigeria
- There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership training programme on the development of physical attributes of youths in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programme on the development of social behaviour patterns of youths in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programme on the development of mental abilities among youths in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programme on the development of emotional behaviour patterns of youth in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programme on the development of moral attributes of youths in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programme on the development of adventure skills of youths in Nigeria.
1:7 Significance of the Study
The development of muscular strength, endurance, stamina, flexibility and other components of physical fitness among youths in Nigeria are essential for healthy participation in societal programmes. The study would reveal the influence of Citizenship and Leadership training programmes on the development of physical mental, social, emotional and adventure skills of youths in Nigeria. These are required competencies for good citizenship and responsible leadership attributes towards National development and efficiency in personal and interpersonal relationship amongst youths in Nigeria.
Developing social values among youths in Nigeria is one of the most important components of our educational objectives. The results of this study would reveal the influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes on the social behaviour patterns of youth in Nigeria. The outcomes of social values among Nigerian Youths in terms of cooperation, manners of behaviours towards each other will bring about unity, tolerance and understanding among youths in various cultures of the country.
The ability of youths to understand and express their feelings would build self-confidence and help them to communicate with their colleagues. The result of this study would reveal the influence of citizenship and leadership training programmes on the emotional behaviour attributes of youths in Nigeria. The healthy emotional behaviours amongst youth will build positive emotional believe of self-reliance, confidence, good communication skills and reduce anxiety in challenging situations among youths in Nigeria.
The acquisitions of critical and analytical thinking are essential ingredients‟ of mental development of an individual. A youth requires the development of inquisitive mind, creativity and the ability to make quick and independent decisions. The result of this study will reveal the influence of Citizenship and Leadership Training on the mental development of youths in Nigeria. The accumulation of knowledge and the ability to think and interpret situations critically will give the youths in Nigeria the required experience as good citizens and responsible leaders.
The training of Nigerian youths is no more to be done with a view of importing and acquiring mere facts. The aim of Nigerian educational policy is aimed at achieving stated National objective. The National includes amongst others the moral and spiritual value in youths for interpersonal and human relations. The result of this study would reveal the influence of
Citizenship and Leadership Training programmes on the moral development of youths in Nigeria.
The programmes will help the youths to clarify and think through their value judgement, appreciations and attitudes. Many educational professionals and educational institutions are turning on to adventure educational experiences.
The adventure educational experiences provide an opportunity for students to observe and experiment practical learning experiences. The result of this study will reveal influence of Citizenship and leadership programmes on the adventure skills development of youths in Nigeria. This will afford them gain competencies for the lives they will live.
The institutions of learning Nigeria teach every subject in line with the Nigerian National objectives. The emphasis of the learning programmes on institutions of learning is to make individual to realize their potentials and talents. The result of this study would reveal the influence of citizenship and leadership training programmes on the development of potentials and talents of youths towards their contribution to National development as good citizens and responsible leaders.
1:8 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimitated to the following:
The study is delimitated to youth participants from Universities, Colleges of Education, Secondary Schools, Cadet from E.F.C.C. that are consistent to attend programmes at the Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre, Shere Hills, Jos, Nigeria.