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EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN JIGAWA STATE
Computer is now an integral part of human life. In other words, it plays significant role in many aspects of human endeavor, like education. The challenge therefore is to be able to remain relevant in the competitive education system through the adoption and use of modern technology (computer). Therefore, the role of computer cannot be over-emphasized. This research work consists of five chapters, which examined the “Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction on the teaching of Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State”. The research design was quasi experimental using a population of 4170 and a sample of 340 students, who were divided into experimental and control groups. Three research questions as well as three null hypotheses were raised for this study. The instrument for data collection titled Computer Assisted Instruction and Social Studies Education Questionnaire was (CAISSQ) was developed by the researcher. The data obtained was analyzed by using t-test and descriptive statistics. The research finding showed that if computers will be used in teaching social studies it will greatly enhance the teaching and learning of the subject more effectively.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education in the 21st century has simply become dependent on computer as a necessary tool for enhancing teaching and learning, communication and access to information (Mason, 1994). The challenge therefore is to be able to remain relevant in the competitive education system, through the adoption and deployment of modern technology as solutions.
rapidly over the past decade with development in electronics, in research on learning, and in the application of system principles to instruction. Instructional technology helps teachers to make effective use of the vast array of both old and new resources available to them. Modern development cannot thrive without emphasis on science and technology. This explains why Nigeria places premium on education as an instrument for its scientific, technological and economic development.
The National Policy on Education gave prominent place to Social Studies Education within the school curricular, as a core subject area, which all pupils in primary and secondary schools cannot dispense within their learning activities. This perhaps, is in recognition of the potentialities of Social Studies Education to inculcate the right kind of skills and virtues through unified and integrated disciplinary study of man (FGN, 2004).
A critical examination of Social Studies Education objectives, the subject involves many approaches of teaching and learning. It is obvious that lecture method is inadequate to achieve the diverse objectives of the subject (Makinde, 2000).
Therefore, the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary underpinnings of the content of Social Studies Education calls for the application of new dimensions and
orientation in planning and synthesizing of a variety of teaching-learning techniques, such as the use of computers, stimulation technology, role playing techniques, guided discussion and other methods for the purpose of ensuring an attainment of appropriate Social Studies Education objectives.
The Social Studies Education must accept responsibility for involving learners in a variety of classroom activities. These activities should provide opportunity for the learners to practice appropriate behaviour. For example, to learn to think critically and form sound judgement, the learner must practice forming judgment. Thus the use of computer assisted instruction, which is multimedia and pupil/student-centred in nature, as a teaching technique in Social Studies Education, will go a long way to enhancing teaching and learning of the subject (Akinlaye, 1999).
Tancook (2002) supports the view that the integration of internet technology (computers), in the Social Studies Education curriculum will enhance teaching and learning more effectively.
It is against this background that this study attempts to find out whether or not there exist any effects of computer assisted instruction on the teaching of Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary School in Jigawa State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Through the researcher‟s experiences as a classroom teacher in some secondary schools, as well as, observations and discussions among fellow colleagues, the researcher deduced that most teachers in the Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State do not make use of computer as modern teaching aids in the teaching and learning of Social Studies Education in the classroom. This lukewarm attitude towards the effective use of instructional facilities, most especially the Computer Assisted Instruction (C.A.I), in teaching and learning of Social Studies Education is common to both, the professionally trained Social Studies Education teachers as well as the untrained professional teachers (that is, those without teaching qualification or from other fields other than Social Studies Education ).
The desire to embark on this research, therefore, stemmed from the above and the fact that there is the problem of poor performance by Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies Education in the state. These poor performances in Social Studies Education have been recorded for some years by examination bodies and Educational Resource Centre in the state, (Ministry of Education, Jigawa, 2001). It is against this backdrop that this research intends to ascertain or otherwise the effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (C.A.I.) in the teaching and learning of Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is aimed at investigating the effects of Computer Assisted Instruction in the teaching of Social Studies Education in schools in Jigawa State. Specifically, this study is set out to achieve the following objectives:
- To find out the effects of computer Assisted Instruction in teaching of Social Studies Education content in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State.
- To find out whether or not there is difference in performance between male and female students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State taught through Computer Assisted technique and those taught using conventional method.
- To find out if age has effect on the performance of students that use Computer Assisted Instruction and those who use conventional method in teaching and learning of Social Studies Education Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher will try to provide answers to the following research questions.
- To what extent does Computer Assisted Instruction have effect on the teaching and learning of Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State?
- To what extent does the use of C.A.I. have effect on the performance of male and female Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State?
- What is the difference in the performance of students in terms of age, of those taught Social Studies Education using Computer Assisted Instruction and those using conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The researcher formulated the following null hypotheses to be tested;
- Ho1: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with C.A.I. and those taught with traditional teaching methods in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State.
- Ho2: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students taught using C.A.I. in teaching Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State and those taught with conventional methods.
- Ho3: There is no significant difference between the age of students who use Computer Assisted Instruction and those who use non-C.A.I. based instruction in Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools students in Jigawa Stateand their academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The researcher is one of the teachers who teaches Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools of Jigawa State and understands the usefulness of Computer Assisted Instruction (C.A.I). The researcher, therefore, will among other things help to bring to light a keen awareness of the usefulness of Computer Assisted Instruction (C.A.I) among the teachers in the effective teaching and learning of Social Studies Education .
The outcome of this study will be useful to educational planners so as to enhance planning of Social Studies Education with recommended techniques and strategies of using modern facilities or enhancements in teaching and learning of Social Studies Education in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State.
The study will provide a medium for the State Ministry of Education to consider the relevance of Computer Assisted Instruction (C.A.I) in teaching and learning situation in all subject areas not only Social Studies Education .
This study will help students to understand lessons easier and also learn Social Studies Education concepts better as well as enhancing their better performance during their Junior Secondary School Certificate Examinations.
This research will also serve as a reference material to other researchers who may wish to carry out a similar research on the topic.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study will also be delimitated to teachers and students of Social Studies Education in Jigawa State Junior Secondary Schools and the use of Computer Assisted Instruction. The study will be limited to the seven (7) Zonal Inspectorates of Education and the State Ministry of Education in Jigawa State Ministry of Education, which are: Dutse Zonal Inspectorate of Education, Birni Kudu Zonal Inspectorate of Education, Hadejia Zonal Inspectorate of Education, Gumel Zonal Inspectorate of Education, and Kafin Hausa Zonal Inspectorate of Education.