Every material on this site is authentic and was extracted from the complete available project.Click to GET IT NOW
MS-WORD DOC || CHAPTERS: 1-5 || PAGES: 63 || PRICE: ₦3000
EMPLOYEE’S PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ITS EFFECT ON WORK PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC IDAH)
This research work is specially carried out to investigate employee participation in decision making and its effect on work performance, with a particular reference to Federal Polytechnic, Idah. The emphasis is on the contribution and effect of employee participation on work performance and productivity. The descriptive research design was used in the research process with the help of a structured questionnaire. Stratified and simple sampling techniques were used in the determination and selection of sample size. Tables and simple percentages were used for presentation and analysis of data while chi-square test was employed for test of hypothesis. The research work revealed significant relationship between goal achievement, efficiency and job satisfaction. Employees’ participation in decision making encourages employees to make use of their moral and emotional involvement in group situation. It was recommended that Management should adopt the participative behavior of the path-goal theory of leadership and create a conducive organizational climate that permits employee participation.
1.1 Background to the Study
There is a popular adage that says that “two good heads are better than one”. In the same vein, ink business world, the business Managers are faced with a lot of problems and tasks to perform in the organizations. Some of these problems are indigenous, i.e within the organization. As a result of these problems and many other tasks, Managers must therefore prepare themselves in order to compete favourably in the dynamic business environment so as to achieve the stated objectives of the organization.
Managers need information from their subordinates inform of suggestion, idea and problem analysis. This then calls for an involvement of subordinates in the running of the affairs of the organization. It is believed that if employees are allowed to participate in the running of their affairs, it will enable them to commit themselves more in the pursuit and realization of the organization’s goals.
Employees’ involvement is a participative process which allows employees to put in their contribution in the decision making and the day to day running of the organization. It is therefore important that Managers allow their employees to be involved in the decision making, as this participation has a lot of effect on work performance of employees.
In business, owing to the financial and economic limitations of individuals’ business in the organization should cooperate with one another in order to be able to surmount the many problems facing them.
Due to human limitation in the organization, the study of Management has advanced into the more humanistic aspect and this has further been strengthened by the urge to know more about the individuals in the organization goals and their contributions towards the attainment of such goals.
As a result of certain concept like participation as it relate to performance has attracted the attention of many Management Scholars, who have devoted their time, money and resources trying to discover the relationship, between participation in the decision making and its effects on work performance.
From the foregoing, participation is seen as a mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation that encourages him to make his own contribution towards the realization of group goals and share responsibility for them. This study is carried out to find out reasons why organization currently takes an interest increasing the role of ordinary employees in decision making.
The first reason is that they (organizations) have been forced into the situation as a result of political pressure (i.e in the European Union). Cole (2002:452) sees participation and empowerment as means of obtaining greater employee motivation and commitment to organization objective.
Important reasons for encouraging greater employee participation in decision making, even if only through increased consultation is that it can lead to improved efficiency and effectiveness in delivering goods and services to customers. If the means of participation not only increases employees’ contribution to problems analysis (which may bring a sense of recognition to individuals), but also enhances their ability to make important operational decision, then increased employees’ commitment and motivation is likely. This in turn is likely to lead to better product or service quality and enhance customer satisfaction. Thus, there are sound practical reasons for finding ways of increasing the involvement of ordinary employee in the day-to-day running of the organization.
It is also the view of some Management Scholars that Managers sometimes need the assistance of their employees in order to function and to make a good decision. Managers, therefore need information in form of suggestion, views and ideas from both the superiors and the subordinates to prepare the strategic, techniques and immediate plans of action that effect their organization.
Lawal (1993:150) is of view that participation is a means of motivating employees for superior performance. Most behaviorists believe that job satisfaction will be guaranteed if superior invites subordinates to participate in planning decision which affect their work.
The participative style of Management calls for participation by the employees in deciding how the work is to be done and problems are to be solved. It will allow the individual to contribute his own idea rather than becoming a sub-servant to the will of his boss. From the foregoing, it could be said that the overall “feet” as a Company may be determined by its organization climate.
Conclusively, from the point of view of this study, a Manager must understand that the subordinates want to feel useful important and know the effect of his participation or involvement on work performance. The Manager should therefore, endeavour to make effort to increase work performance, keeps its subordinate informed to his/her objective to the work plan and allows subordinate to exercise some self-direction and self-control on routine work. With these, it is expected that the resistance to formal authority will be reduced and willing cooperation from subordinates obtained.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The concept of participation has been misunderstood by many Managers in their organizations. The problem of the study is extended to which participation of the workers seeks to identify the different levels of participation. It also attempts to tackle the problem of what level of participation in the decision making should be allowed for employees in the organization. Also the study deals with problems of how can the participative group contri9bute to the needs of the other stakeholders especially customers.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to assess the impact of employees participation on work performance and how it can help to ensure an increased output and commitment of employee in an organization. The following are specific objectives of the study:
- To investigate the relationship between goal achievement and participation indecision making.
- To assess the impact of participation in decision making on job satisfaction.
- I examine the relationship between employees participation and employees commitment.
- To investigate the impact of employees participation on organizational efficiency.
1.4 Research of Hypotheses
Hypotheses are conjectural statement about two or more variables. The following statements of hypotheses are formulated to clarify further the nature of the problem, and the logic underlying the research.
HOI: There is no positive relationship between goal achievement and participation in decision making.
HII: There is a positive relationship between goal achievement and participation in decision making.
H02: There is no positive and significant relationship between participation in decision making and satisfaction with supervision.
HI2: There is positive and significant relationship between participation in decision making and satisfaction with supervision.
HO3: Employees’ participation in decision making does not enhance employees’ commitment to the organization goal and increase work performance.
HI3: Employees’ participation in decision making enhance employees’ commitment to the organization goal and increase work performance.
HO4: Employee’s participation in decision making does not increase organizational efficiency.
HO4: Employees’ participation in decision making increases organizational efficiency.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is carried out to throw more light on the issue of employees’ participation in the decision making and it’s effect on work performance. A study of how an employee participate in the decision making will create an opportunity for employees to make and implement decisions, and then seeing them work out, can help satisfy an employee’s needs for responsibility, achievement, recognition, growth and enhanced self-esteem.
This study will enable a greater group work performance and improved understanding of how the Federal Polytechnic Idah manages their human resources. In addition, it will enable the employer to know whether employees are satisfied with the supervision approach of allowing workers to participate in the decision making that concern them.
Judge (2007:236) has this to say “the underlying logic is that by involving workers in the decisions that affect them and by increasing them autonomy and control over their work lives, employees will become more satisfied with their jobs”.
This study will work towards providing a sound basis for the development of employees to aid Management decision-making in an organization. This study will also enable the Management of the Federal Polytechnic Idah, to take necessary steps or action in determining the best approach to manage their employees.
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.6.1 Scope of the Study
The study covers an appraisal of employees’ participation in the decision-making and its effect on work performance. It is a critical study of Federal Polytechnic Idah. It contains an investigation of likely problem of the study to the extent to which participation of workers in decision-making will be effective and what will be the effect of such participation on work performance. It also covers the issue of how can management of an organization use participation f employees in the decision making as a motivational tool for increased output of employees. Hence, serious attempt are made to suggest possible solutions of these problems.
1.6.2 Limitations of the Study
This study suffered a log of limitations, some of which include: limited time, financial constraint and so on.
Firstly, time acted as the greatest limitation of the study, since this workers involves the study of workers in a selected institution, Federal Polytechnic Idah, within a specified period or a given period of time. As earlier pointed out, the researcher is restricted to a particular institution Idah – Kogi State. This obviously hinders the extent of generalization from the findings. Also, lack of adequate finance hindered the work a great deal, coupled with the increasing cost of materials.
Generally, the study involved sampling both Managers and employees. Problems were encountered in interacting with top Managers in particular, since interaction with them is only made possible through a prior booking. This affected the researchers plan to only interview the managerial order and give questionnaire to the level of employees. The researcher was therefore forced to give questionnaire to both Managers, and the employees which will not produce a reliable information on the researcher. On the other hand, most employees in Federal Polytechnic, Idah were reluctant to co-operate with the researcher. This led to some element of bias in the response.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Participation: McGregor (1960:30) defined participation as a special case of delegation in which the subordinates, gain greater control, greater freedom of choice with respect to his own responsibility.
Work Performance: Work performance is used in this study as the extent to which a worker does his or her job in relation to the standard which is expected from him or her.
Decision-Making: This can be defined as a course of action consciously chosen from among an alternative for the purpose of achieving a desired result. It is a process of choosing the best alternative for reaching objectives.
Budgeting: Joseph (2001:163) budgeting refers to formulation of plans for future activity, which lay down carefully determined objectives and programmes of activities and provide yard sticks by which deviations from planned achievements can be measured. It is the preparation of advance of the quantitative as well as financial statements to indicate the intention of the Management in respect of the various aspects of the business and objectives of the organization. Effective organizing reduces overlapping of dues, responsibilities, communication and accountability. It also minimizes organizational conflicts and confusion.
Planning: It involves determining what objectives to pursuer and what action to take in achieving them. It involves forecasting and systematic analysis of information relating to the major objectives envisaged by the organization. Planning involve deciding in advance on what to do, how to do it, who is to do it and when to do it. Planning involves the establishment of an organizational objectives and steps necessary to achieve these state objectives.
Controlling: It involves the regulation of activities in order to achieve planned objectives. Managers have to establish an effective control mechanism that will ensure the achievement of organizational goals. Control involves the establishment of the standard, measurement of performance against standard and correction of deviations.
Staffing: This is determining the human resources needed in an organization and engaging in recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers, compensating and training and developing both candidate, and current job holders so that they can achieve organization goals.
`Thus, Managers must ensure that right member, right kind of people and caliber are provided in the organizations. Adequate remuneration and motivation should be provided. There should be provision for good leadership climate that will encourage people to work willingly.
Directing: This deals with leadership and motivation. It is the process of channeling the behavior of subordinate towards the attainment of the organization goals. Managers should be able to direct and channel behavior towards the attainment of the organizational goals. They should motivate their subordinates by offering good incentives that will induce them to work. They should make sure efforts are directed towards the achievement of the organization goals and objectives.
1.8 Organization of Work
This study is grouped into five chapters. Chapter ne gives the introduction to the study. It also shows the background to the study which emphasis on the study, on how participation of employees comes to be. It also talks about the objectives of the study whereby it is mainly to find out the impact of employees participation on work performance and how it helps to ensure an increased output and commitment of employees in an organization. It also takes into consideration, the statement of hypothesis which is also known as research question; significance of the study which emphasis on the reason why the study is being carried out, scope and limitation of the study which takes into consideration how the study suffered a lot of limitation. Some of the limitation include limitation of time, financial constraint and so on, chapter one also shows the definition of key terms whereby the relevant key words are explained.
Chapter two is the literature review and the theoretical framework. The literature review examine the past work and authorities of the field while the theoretical framework bothers mainly on the basic principle of participation.
In chapter three, an attempt was made to produce research design in which descriptive research and survey method was used. It also talks about the area of the study in which the research focuses on the employee’s participation in decision making and its effect on work performance with particular reference to Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, and also the source and method of data collection; population of the study which emphasis the entire group of individuals or items whose member or unit possess the same basis and clearly defined characteristics; sample and sampling techniques which talks about how the study covers the junior and senior staff of the various department in Federal Polytechnic Idah. It also takes into consideration validation of instrument to make sure that the instrument measured what it was intended; and the method of data analysis where statistical method was used for the purpose of clarity and easy understanding.
Chapter four provide the presentation and analysis of data whereby the data collected are presented and interpreted and also data collected are being tabulated and analyzed by using percentage method.
Chapter five includes the summary of the findings from the analysis that is being done in chapter four; it also takes into consideration summary of the study where every work that has been done from chapter one to chapter five is being summarized. It also talks about the conclusion which was duly made about the study; the suggestions for further research are made in which the researcher suggest some problems. The analysis of these problems will provide more knowledge and insight into the problem. Some of the problems that was suggested for further research are:
(i) An analysis of the problems of employees participation in decision making.
(ii) Management-employee relationship as a tool for organization development etc. and lastly, it take into consideration the recommendation in which considering the findings of this study, the research considers it appropriate to make some of the following consideration.
- Management should always involve employees in decision making especially those decisions that concern them.
2. Management should always recognize the individual effort toward participation, allow them to participation. They should always maintain a positive attitude to participation since managerial attitude to participation is found to affect what happen during participation process etc.