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ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA A SURVEY OF SOME SELECTED SUPERMARKETS IN IDAH LOCAL GOVERNMENT METROPOLIS KOGI STATE.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Aluko (2005:32) Nigeria is ranked among the poorest countries in the world despite the huge receipts from oil which has been put about $340 billion dollars in the past twenty years. According to him, a major variable for accessing the level of poverty in society is the human development index. This includes live expectancy, that is mortality rates, nutrition, pandemic, lack of access to clean and drinkable water, and access to public health services, poor sanitation, rapid spread of HIV/AIDS and above all unemployment rates. Nigeria is recorded to perform far below other countries in these area. The per capita income in Nigeria is also on the decline. Aluko stressed further that we are poor today than we were in 1960 to early 70s because our per capita declined from $1,450 in 1960 to $340 today. Seventy percent (70%) of Nigeria’s populations are poor as they live below the international poverty line of $1 a day. The country’s contribution to global Gross Domestic Products (GDP) is a negligible 0.22%.
Of concerned to this research work is how the establishment and management of small and medium enterprises (entrepreneurship) can help in reducing these menace and enable the country to achieve her vision 20-20-20. However, thus, a country’s status and position on the global development scale is measures to a very large extent by it economic structure in line with the sectoral contributions of the primary (Agricultural and Mining), secondary (Manufacturing, utilities and construction), and tertiary (all service activities) sectors respectively to national income, input and generation of employment.
However, by way of giving focus and to be specific to our objective in this research work, we shall be very brief on the term “Small Business Enterprises and Entrepreneurship”. The researchers see small business enterprises and entrepreneurship play a vital role in most economies- developed or developing. This is because of the catalytic roles of the small business enterprises and entrepreneurship in economic and technological development in nations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
For every research endeavour, there must be an impetus. In respect of this study work, the researcher observed that;
- Nigeria is currently experiencing problems of unemployment and rural-urban migration. This has been compared by frightening turnout of school leavers, polytechnic and university graduates yearly.
- Increase in the rate of armed robbery, 419, terrorism and insurgency, among other related crimes by our youths who are unemployed.
- Problem of prostitution, human trafficking and child abuse in our country as a result of unemployment situation.
- Government organization, multinational corporation and other large business enterprises are retrenching some of their workers while others are closing down and in some enterprises, workers are sent on forced leaves because production capacity reduced or to reduce operation costs and stay in business.
In this regard, the researchers see that establishment of small medium scale enterprises and entrepreneurship development can help in creating job for these groups of youths and reduce the level of crimes, rural-urban drift, among other. Thus, with minimum encouragement and financial support to many of the current educated unemployed labour (youths) so that they can start their own business using the already acquired educational and technical skills.
1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
It is intelligent guess by the researchers what the outcomes of the research work will look like. However, some of the following research questions will be put forward by the researchers in this project work.
- Ho: That establishment and management of small business enterprises have no appreciable impact on the unemployment situation in Nigeria.
Hi: That establishment of small scale business enterprises have appreciable impact on the unemployment situation in Nigeria.
- Ho: That high rate of crime among the Nigeria youths today is not as a result of unemployment situation in the country.
Hi: That high rate of crime among the Nigerian youths today is a result of unemployment situation in the country.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study apart from being the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Public Administration is also intended to fulfill the task of impacting a sound knowledge of establishment and management of small business enterprises to those who are unemployed in order to be self-employed.
Thus, the objectives of the study are as follows:-
- To examine the crucial impact of establishment and management of small scale business enterprises on the problem of unemployment in the country.
- To encourage the Nigeria youth who engaged themselves in one crime or the other that with the establishment and management of small scale business they can do something meaningful to their life.
- To examine the crucial role of establishment and management of small scale enterprises in promoting rapid and sustained economic development in Nigeria.
- To find out the impact of establishment and management of small scale enterprise of supermarkets in Idah local government of Kogi State.
- To teach our unemployed youths how to start up a small scale business enterprises and become an entrepreneur and independent.
- To equip our unemployed youths on how to undertake marketing management research.
- To equally equip them with the knowledge of management planning.
- Finally to find out the problems affecting the establishment and management of small scale business enterprises and to make recommendations to eliminate such problem(s).
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is considered essential as it will help overcome the persistent problems of unemployment by our young graduates, school leavers and school dropped out, as well as improve the economy of the country.
Attention will also be given to the relationship that exist or the impact of the establishment and management of small and medium scales business enterprises as well as entrepreneurship on unemployment issue in the country.
“To be forewarned is to before armed” so says Maxim. This study lays much small scale business enterprises and entrepreneurship can avoid failure and bears the minimum risk by making adequate preparation at the start of a business venture, in order to contribute to finding lasting solution to the frequent collapse of small business enterprises which rendered some business men and entrepreneur to be unemployed.
It is very important to note that most of the Nigeria youths who engaged themselves in one crime or the other will be encouraged to establish and manage an enterprise of their own.
Apart from this, the Nigeria unemployed youth will be equipped with the knowledge on how to start up a small scale business enterprise.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Successful this research may seem, it is not devoid of problems. This project work could have been wider and more elaborate but due to some constraints, the power of the researchers to engage upon further survey and research was limited. Those obvious constraints are the factors responsible for the limitations of this study, such factors include, the issues of data collection. That is, inaccessibility to some vital information for instance, most of the shops and supermarkets visited, their sales attendants/the owners were unwilling to collect questionnaire and answer them as required.
One has to make several visits before the attention of some of the shop owners who always claimed to be busy and not ready to see anybody.
However, it is suffice to say that some of the information and materials came up after much pressure by the researchers. Another limitation encountered by the researchers is the area of finance. The amount of money needed for running around in collecting data, going to cyber to browse and printing of the materials, among others hindered the researchers too.
Finally, the greatest limitation is time, the time for the research work is too little and such limits the researchers to a great extent in terms of data collection. All these limitations, notwithstanding, the researchers would endeavour to conduct a thorough investigative study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
It is imperative at this juncture to define some key terms to enable us comprehend with the subject in question. Some of the key terms that demand definition are defined below:-
Poverty-Line: The official level of income that is necessary to be able to buy the basic things you need such as food and clothes and to pay for somewhere to live, (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary; 7th edition).
Pandemic: A disease that spread over a whole country or the whole world. Example; HIV/AIDS and EBOLA e.t.c.
Mortality: The state of being human and not living for ever. It is the number of deaths in a particular situation or period of time.
Investment: The commitment of scarce resources to a project with the ultimate aim of achieving a reasonable return, (either financially or socially) to compensate the investors for the risk taken.
Rural-urban migration: The movement of people from local area into the city for one reason or the other.
Data: This is a name given to basic facts, example the number of items sold to business firm, the name of a customer. Data are of three (3) types; numeric, alphanumeric that consist of number and alphabet and special character such as $,
Per-capita Income: An average earning for each person.
Management: This is defined as the co-ordination of all resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain the organizational objective(s) (C.C Nwachukwu; 1984).
Business enterprises: It is an economic entity or agent which produces the variety of goods and services necessary for human survival and economic welfare.
Unemployment: A situation where by there are people who are willing able, qualified in both physical and mental abilities as well as certificate otherwise seeking for work to do but found no job.
Entrepreneur: Is the chief initiator or organizer of a business enterprise, and also a person who invest time, money and effort in business and assumes the risk. (M. Norbert; 2005).
Resources: This means all the facilities and equipments, the skills of personnel and the financial strength of any business venture.