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EVALUATION OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FOR TEACHERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
The study evaluated Staff Development Programmes of Primary Schools in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study has six objectives set to; examine conferences organized for teachers in Primary Schools in Zaria metropolis, determine workshops organized for teachers, examine orientation organized for teachers, examine symposium organized for teachers, determine the in-service training organized for teachers and determine mentoring organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis. Research questions and hypotheses as well as review of related literatures were in line with the set objectives. Survey research method was adapted and the population of the study consisted of 810 teachers, 35 head teachers and 60 LGEA officials of Zaria metropolis Kaduna State. Cluster sampling technique was used in the selection of sample of the study. Out of the population, 285 teachers, 35 head teachers and 40 LGEA officials were randomly selected from 35 primary schools. Therefore, the total number of 360 respondents was served as a sample for the study. The data for the study were collected through the use of self constructed questionnaire, the validity of the instrument was determined through vetting of the content by experts in Educational Administration. The reliability coefficient was obtained at 0.77. The data collected were presented by the use of frequency and percentages. The formulated hypotheses of the research were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and analyzed the data at 0.05 significant level. The findings of the study revealed that there were regular staff development programmes through conferences and workshops for teachers, while there were no regular in-service training and symposia for teachers in primary schools in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State. In view of this, the study recommended that government should double their efforts for staff development programmes through in-service training, symposia and mentoring for primary school teachers in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State.
1.1 Background to the Study
Staff development programmes have been fully recognized as a dream in enhancing teachers‘performance. It is therefore, to achieve teachers‘performance and enhance credibility. Local Government Education Authority (LGEA) should emphasize the effective acquisition and utilization of human resources by investing in training or promotion on the jobs. The role of teachers in Primary school is multifaceted. They are always under great pressure to conduct research, teach, advise pupils, advise parents and serve on communities. Staff development has therefore, become the vehicle for meaningful change which play an integral part in developing the school philosophy, goals and expectation. It is through training and development programs which differ in breath in relation to the needs and resources of the school professionalism, productivity individual effectiveness and performance has been a contended issue in most countries due to poor work ethics.
This study rests on the human capital theory developed by Maicibi and Nkata (2005) which postulates that training involves both learning and teaching with improved employee job performance and productivity derived from short term and long term training. It argues that both knowledge and skill are a form of capital and that this capital is a production of deliberate investment acquisition of knowledge and skill is compared to acquiring the ―means of production‖ however, the concept of human capital implies a statement in people. Workers no longer have to be at the mercy of others. Instead, they can be in control of increasing their own productivity and earning through education the performance among teachers had still been noted to be very low and unsatisfactory.
National development all over the world has continued to be intricately tied to educational development in which the teacher is the critical element. It is most likely that is for this reason that Jakeyinfa (2005) posited that the training and production of manpower needed for the attainment of national objectives should be framed on the quality and qualify of teachers. It is on this background that the federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) made specific policy provision of teacher education.
Primary education is the formal education given to children aged 6-11 years and above Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004). The rest of the education system i.e. the secondary and tertiary are built upon it therefore Primary education is the bedrock to the success of otherwise of the whole system of education the task of teaching is dele gated to teachers, who constitute the most important factor in the learning process the FRC (2004) emphasizes the important of teacher in education development. And state that no education system can rise above the quality of its teacher similarly Ikeotonye (2003) state that no nation can develop beyond the condition of its teachers. The above statement indicate very clearly the importance of teachers in learning process it is, therefore, for any society that wants rapid development to prepare and invest a lots of its resources in the development of its teachers this will help them to acquire relevant experience to facilitate teaching and learning.
In many parts of Nigeria and Kaduna state in particular education is still in its infancy there are many problems on staff development programmes of the state universal Basic education and local Government Education Authorities in Kaduna State to be addressed. The Primary education is to make it possible for a man to live as full as and happy life as possible, staff development programme of the universal Basic Education and Local Government Education Authorities in the State was aimed to enable teachers of Primary school to acquire additional education, skills, and new ideas for better performance and efficiency in the teaching profession.
Staff development of universal Basic education in Kaduna state specifically concerned with sending of Primary school teachers to attend the training programme such as in-service training workshops and Seminars there various consideration which may determined young man or woman to choose teaching as a career such consideration are better financial rewards than other profession job security and safety and physiological needs to mention but a few, the real teacher must go on learning reading and experimenting until the day he or she retired.
The Advantage of the training of teachers has been entrenched in the education policy of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (2004) revised it is contended that a nations education system is a function of the quality of teacher that operate it this implies that for any education system to achieved the desired goal of the country the teacher have to be equipped and motivated for the demand of that goal. In Nigeria today, education is regard as an institution per excellence for effective national development. This belief is built and in cooperated into the nations philosophy of education which is reflected and emphasized in the objectives at each level of the education system for this reason, the need to emphasize making Primary school teachers well developed becomes obvious in Kaduna state because it offers a ways of improving skills and enhancing productivity and quality of teachers in our Primary schools. This in turn has a positive impact on improving quality and standard of education in the state as well as in the country at large.
Man power development can only be achieved with proper staff development plan. In line with this the ministry of education, the state universal Basic education Board and local government education authority in Kaduna state, need to emphasize the development of Primary school teachers the state will require professional Primary school teacher who possess the requisite skills and knowledge to improve the standard of education in the local government education authority.
Therefore this research focuses on evaluation of staff development programmes for Primary school teachers in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Primary aim of education is to make it possible for a man to live as full and as happy a life as possible. Staff development programme of the Primary school teachers in Kaduna state was aimed to enable teachers of Primary school to acquire additional education, skills and new ideas for better performance and efficiency in the teaching profession.
Staff development of Zaria Local Government Education Authority specifically concerned with sending of Primary school teachers to attend the training programmes such as in-service training, workshops, conferences and seminars. Primary schools in Zaria metropolis are being taught by teachers with various levels of qualifications. The negligence of staff development programme of teachers has led to falling standard of education, the negligible number of teachers benefiting from the staff development programmes for Primary school teachers, have made the research to investigate with the
hope to come out with reasons for such situation. Many of the teachers in Primary schools have not been benefiting from the staff development programmes for many years back to the time of conducting this research. Educationists have the believe that staff development programmes are very useful to teachers so that they can increase their skill and knowledge for better performance and efficiencies in their respective field. The problem has been created from the interaction of two or more factors, for example the government policies the economic constraints, and the essential needs for teachers which have not been adequately given to motivate them to undergo for in service training and any kind of workshops and seminars.
Again, other allowances to motivate teachers to attend in service training have not been paid, the interest for teachers to attend in-service training and workshops has not been very high due to the low approach to staff development programme by the local government education authorities and the state universal Basic education it has been widely accepted that success or failure in management and policy implementation of any educational programmes rests more squarely on the quality commitment of teachers, as Ukeje (1975) emphasizes that professionally trained competent, committed and well motivated teachers are the central factor in effective management and implementation of educational programmes towards the attainment of its goals and national development.
Therefore the study aimed at evaluating the staff development programmes of Primary school teachers in Zaria as motivational factor to boast teachers‘morale for better performance and efficiency in the teaching profession.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were raised to guide the study:
- Examine conferences organized for teachers in Primary Schools in Zaria metropolis.
- Determine workshops organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
- Examine symposium organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
- Determine in-service training for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
- Examine orientations organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
- Determine mentoring organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of this study the under listed research questions were formulated.
- Are conferences organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis?
- Are workshops/seminars organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis?
- Are symposiums organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis?
- Are teachers allowed to go for in-service training in primary schools in Zaria metropolis?
- Are orientations organized for teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis?
- Do teachers in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis undergo mentoring to promote their job?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null-hypotheses are postulated for this study.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head teachers and LGEA officials on conferences organized for Primary school teachers in Zaria metropolis.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head teachers and LGEA officials on workshops organized for Primary school teacher in Zaria metropolis.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head teachers and LGEA officials on symposium organized for Primary school teacher in Zaria metropolis.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head teachers and LGEA officials on in-service training organized for Primary school teacher in Zaria metropolis.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head teachers and LGEA officials on orientations organized for Primary school teacher in Zaria metropolis.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head teachers and LGEA officials on mentoring organized for Primary school teacher in Zaria metropolis.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study puts forward the following basic assumptions.
- The standard of Primary education will improve if Primary school teachers are well developed through proper organization and conduct of training and retraining of teachers in the local government.
- Staff development is widely accepted to be an important exercise for the improvement of teachers‘productivity.
- Staff development is an important aspect of teacher education programme and should be intensified.
- Teachers‘development and productivity can be improved through regular conducts of seminars, workshops and others educational conferences.
- It is assumed that regular organizing of symposiums motivates teachers to be dedicated and productive in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
- School mentoring improves teachers‘service delivery and curriculum implementation in Primary schools in Zaria metropolis.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study embarked on the Evaluation of Staff Development Programme for Teachers in Primary Schools in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State. The study is significant to the extent that; it is hoped to help the government to identify the need to allocate enough funds and resources necessary for the development programme of Primary school teachers which enable them to produce individual who will live a more meaningful and fulfilling life as well as contribute to the socio economic and political development of their societies.
The study enables the Local Government Education Authority to assess its role in the training of Primary school teacher for maximum productivity. Not only that; the study is important to teachers and public as it will enlighten them about the existing staff development programme in the local government education authority for their benefit. The study is very relevant to teachers as the programme will help to increase their knowledge for better performance and efficiency in Primary schools. The study served as additional academic reference on education and for further educational research.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is limited on evaluation of staff development programmes for teachers in public Primary school in Zaria metropolis. The staff development programme being covered are the in-service training workshops, seminar, symposium, mentoring and conferences as identifying other various ways that will make the teachers in the local government develop their professional competences for the upliftment of the standard of education.