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EVALUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOUTHERN KADUNA SENATORIAL ZONE, NIGERIA
The study examined the evaluation of the management of secondary schools in southern Kaduna senatorial zone, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population sample was three hundred and eighty six (386) that is 5 Ministry of Education Officials, 60 principals from sixty secondary schools, 203 teachers and 118 Parents Teachers
Association (P.T.A) officials in both public and private secondary schools in the area of study. Multi – stage, simple and stratified random sampling technique were used to select the schools, teachers and parents used for the study. A set of structured questionnaire was used to collect the data for the study. The data were analyzed using mean, percentages, frequencies, and Standard Deviation while ANOVA was employed to answered the research questions and hypotheses. The hypothesis formulated in the study was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Out of the eight hypothesis, seven were accepted and one was rejected. The study revealed that parents were much involved in the funding of secondary schools in the area covered. The study also revealed that secondary schools were moderately effective. It was discovered that there is no significant relationship between parents involvement in funding secondary school education. It is therefore evidenced that parents contribute greatly in funding secondary schools in southern Kaduna Senatorial zone. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made, two of which are: that parents and well meaning individuals in the society should joint hand with government to funds secondary schools and that government should impose the evaluation of teachers by students and others stakeholders in the education industry to enhance academic performance of students.
1.1 Background to the Study
The management of education in Nigeria is dictated by the country‟s political structure based on federalism. Consequently, the Federal Ministry of Education makes policies decisions on education. These policies are translated as the National policies on education. National Policy on Education (2013) emphasized effective teaching and learning in the management of secondary education in Nigeria so as to realize the goals of secondary schools. Makoju (2007) pointed out that through the various management agencies such as Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. (NERDC), National Universities Commission (NUC) and State Ministry of Education (SMOE). These agencies plan the curriculum and gives approval to what should be taught. However, based on the approved National Policy On Education, the Secondary School is headed by a school administrator with the status of principal.
From the forgoing, the principal has the power and authority in collaboration with the teaching staff to take decision on what kind of activities to be carried out in school, he control effective teaching and learning, supervise, managed school funds as well as discipline of students in the school and others.
In the same vein, the principal takes the place of parents by providing the students with require knowledge for lifelong education and serve as a link on what they started from birth to death (Makoju 2007). In this regard, the principal occupies a unique position in maintaining school discipline and administration that would permit the school as an institution of learning to accomplish its duties to the society. Igunnu (2012) and kochhar (2005) opined that the principal is concerned with the staff supervision which includes the supervision of actual teaching and learning particularly in the evaluation of learner experience or home work, test examinations and others.
These deliberate actions of the principal in conducting school administration in the school, according to kochhar (2005) are meant to implement the curriculum and instruction designed for the school which is subject to recruitment of competent staff. Also subject-teachers in the school organization work together with the principal in the day-to-day administration of the school system to enhance academic standard.
In view of this development Otu,(2010) stressed that, the school head is responsible for the management of school funds. According to Otu (2010) the success of any school programme depends very much on the way the financial imputs are managed and this, in turn, affects the overall performance of the school. She therefore opines that, it is important that all school head have a sufficient knowledge of finance to be able to be effective financial managers.
Kochhar (2oo5) enumerate the roles of subject teachers in our secondary school to include among others; “disseminations of knowledge or impacting of knowledge to students, they are role models and provide sound and moral discipline for the students to develop right attitude that would enable them serve the nation actively and as upright citizens”. In order to achieve these noble tasks, the subject-teacher plays an important role in the shaping and moulding the habits, tastes, manners and above all the character of the students; Subjects teachers also participate in the guidance and counselling of the students that would guarantee the choice of the right careers in life.
Dare, (2012) pointed out that, the right instruction associated with staffing and academic performance as well as effectiveness and efficiency of every education system in the world depend on the competences, effectiveness, efficiency and devotion of the teaching force. This is because a well supervised and motivated teacher appears to have the requisite knowledge skills and ability to convert the potential human capital resources for meaningful used. In the words of Udoh and Akpa(2004) and kochhar (2005) teachers are the pivot upon which the growth and developments of the society depends , this was also confirmed by Otu (2012) when she said that the wealth, growth and developments of a nation depend largely on well motivated teachers.
From the very time when the Christian missionaries introduced western education in Nigeria, it was felt that the missionary education was deficient and not quite adequate to meet our changing societal needs. In other words, emphasis was on quantity of teachers for school system, but in contemporary Nigerian society as pointed out by Yabo (2006) the issue of quality of teachers is being given consideration “No system of education can rise higher than its teacher” and „„the way to child-centred education can only be through teacher-centred school”. Kochhar (2005). For quality teachers education programme to work effectively and efficiently in our secondary schools, it is important that practicing teachers and all that is associated with the school system should have in-depth knowledge regarding teacher education and related concepts and issues.
In the same vein, Yabo (2006) viewed teaching as a noble task and guidance of students through planned activities so that they may acquire the richest learning experiences for proper transition up to tertiary level.
However, the main principle in managements of secondary schools is the involvements of teachers in school control and decision-making process. In the same vein, Dare (2009) defined authority as the right to give orders which must be religiously obeyed by the subordinates. Authority is require to control the behaviour of members of an organization. This implies that appropriate rules are required to encourage performance while sanctions are necessary to discourage behaviours and in efficiency in the organization. In other word, the person whom the order is given is bound to accept it regardless of his own judgment about the worth or otherwise of what he is ordered to do. Sometimes, principals or school managers who issued orders to staff and students regardless of their own opinions or view is the root cause of teacher oppression and there by prevent teachers from exercising meaningful control over the purposes and final social results of their studies (Musa 2009).
In view of this development, Edward (2009) pointed out that the school head is responsible for the management of school facilities. According to him, the successful management of school facilities depends on effective and proper school facilities planning. Hence in planning school academic calendar a lot of things need to be taken into consideration in order to ensure maximum utilization of the facilities which include the development of the education programme and the development of the educational specifications of the entire school structures and all facilities that are being supplied in the school.
Otu (2012) posited that, one of the areas which affect the good management in our schools appears to be on the type of administration organized in secondary schools. This tend to suggest whether in secondary school that a laissez- faire principal cannot be equal with the democratic leader who carries teacher along in both decision making process and ensures, that they are guided with basic information on the implementation of educational objectives.
These factors suggest that in a school with a laissez-faire or autocratic leader the resultant effects on their leadership style would surely determine the level of teacher‟s participation in decision making process. However, it is this administrative perspective that inspired the need for this research work in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the 1970‟s Nigeria educational system was ranked among the best in the world. But unfortunately in recent years as posited by Dare (2012) there is a general cry on the state of education in Nigeria which is an indicative of a drastic erosion of the quality of our educational system. There is no doubt that the sector has suffered a lot of set back over the years. These associated problems are visible in the area of overpopulation with over-pupil teacher ratio, inadequacy of teaching learning facilities, inadequate funds, inaccurate data for planning, poor implementation strategies, shortage of competent teachers, policy inconsistencies and lack of commitment of personnel among others, were and are still the challenges facing secondary education from inception up to date. For efficient and effective management in the secondary schools, there must be well trained teachers, well stock libraries, facilities, manpower, accurate data for planning, good implementation of educational programmes and others. Dare (2012) argued that, teaching and learning cannot be achieved if schools were faced with problems of management, indiscipline, lack of funds, lack of competent teachers, and poor and unattractive conditions of service for teachers among others.
The challenges of Secondary Education in Southern Kaduna Senatorial zone, are common to the challenges of most others states in Nigeria that is why the budgetary allocation in the past years has been far short of the (UNESCO) recommendation of 26% and the general lack of transparency in the managements of the little finances provided has engendered shortages of instructional materials, facilities and equipment thereby making the administrative system short of adequate facilities need for effective and efficient management of secondary schools.
Most school buildings in the management of secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial zone are disgusting and in serious states of dilapidation making them unsafe for students and teachers alike. In other words, Caudil (1954) in Udoh and Akpa (2004) maintains that the school plants planning starts and ends with the children and that the buildings are to be designed to satisfy the children‟s physical and emotional needs. In order to meet the physical needs of the children a safe structure, adequate sanitary facilities, a balanced visual environment, an appropriate thermal environment and sufficient shelter, space for work and play should be provided. The children will learn more and work harder when facilities are adequate but in the absence of the essential facilities the children and the staff will always be anxious, not feeling at ease to carry on with the teaching /learning process. The anxiety productivity thus affects their productivity. On their part, teachers are demoralized and reluctant to accept posting to rural areas or villages which lack social amenities.
Igunnu (2012) observed that, this scenario spread round the bad image arising from non inspection and supervision of secondary schools. Inspection and supervision which is considered as an important cornerstone for good management of secondary schools suffered from lack of evaluation system, in sufficient staffing/shortages of inspectors, negative attitude towards supervision and supervisors, corruption that is, societal ills injected into the school system among others. Moreso, low level of administrative supervision by the school administrators and subject inspectors contributed to poor evaluation of teachers especially in the area of lesson plans, and lack of concern for outstanding performance demonstrated by teachers in their various stations.
In the same vein, the observed appointment process of school head associated with government political instability in policies decisions in education is generating slow progress in the performance of students as well as expected feedbacks related to record keeping and the entire management in secondary schools in the state. Teachers are very important to the success of any educational programme. Therefore, their involvement in decision Making process related to school management is yet another millstone for smooth implementation of the 9-3-3-4 system of education in Kaduna state. The level of teacher involvement is depended on the quality of skills and knowledge acquired and the level of exhibitions of enthusiasm and dedication demonstrated by the teachers on teaching as a profession.
However, Manya in Alhas (2005) point out that in the last six years in secondary certificate examination, academic performance has been below expected. For instance, in 1994 result, out of 13,389 candidates who sat for SSCE examinations, only 48 passed with five credits inclusive of English and Mathematics, and in 2012 result, out of 310,077 that sat for SSCE examination, only 45 passed with 5 credits inclusive of English and Mathematics. Also the absent of vibrant parent teacher association (P.T.A) in the Secondary schools had left a gap in the area of funding and desire for effective community contribution in the development of instructional material and equipment.
Based on the above scenario, there are widespread opinions or views for improved quality in education, there is the need for good management, adequate and well organized supervision and monitoring which Igunnu (2012) sees as an art of overseeing the activities of teachers and other educational workers in a school system to ensure that they conform with the generally accepted principles and practices of education.
In this research work, the problem of investigation is associated with an evaluation of the management of Secondary Schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial zone. Specifically, the study focuses on the following areas such as funding, maintenance of discipline, staff development, decision making process, supervision and inspection, staffing/academic performance, management of school facilities, planning of school academic calendar among others.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The purpose of the study is to make an evaluation of the management of Secondary Schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone. To this end, the study develops the following objectives for action on seeking for available information on the significance differences of opinions of respondents. The specific objectives are to:
- determine the funding of Secondary Schools in Southern Kaduna senatorial Zone
- examine the maintenance of discipline in Secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone.
- find out the management of staff development in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone
- assess the decision making process in Secondary Schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone
- ascertain supervision and inspection in Secondary Schools in the area of study
- examine the academic performance of secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone
- assess the management of school facilities in secondary schools in the area of study
- find out the planning of secondary schools academic calendar in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone
1.4 Research Questions
In line with the specific objectives of the study stated above the study answered the following study questions in chapter four.
- What are the opinions of Ministry of Education Officials, Principals, Teachers, Parents as regards parents funding of Secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone?
- What are the opinions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents about maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in the area of study?
- What are the perceptions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers , and Parents with regards management staff development in secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone?
- What are the opinions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents as regards to decision making process in secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone?
- What are the opinions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents as regards supervision and inspection in Secondary Schools?
- What are the opinions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents as regards academic performance of students in Secondary School in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone?
- What are the views of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents as regards management of school facilities in the area of study.
- What are the opinions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents as regards planning of school academic calendar in secondary schools in the area of study.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In view of the above research questions, the following questions null-hypotheses was tested to determine the level of significant difference in the opinions of MOE Officials, Principals, Teachers, and Parents:-
There is no significant difference in the opinions of Ministry of Education officials, principals, teachers and parents as regards funding of secondary schools education in the area of study.
There is no significant difference in the opinions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents with regards discipline in secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone.
There is no significant difference in the opinions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents as regards staff development in secondary schools in the area of study.
There is no significant difference in the opinions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents as regards decision making in secondary schools, in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone.
There is no significant difference in the opinions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents with regards supervision and inspection in Secondary Schools.
There is no significant difference in the opinions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents as regards the academic performance of students in secondary schools in the area of study.
There is no significant difference in the opinions of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents as regards management of school facilities in the area of study.
There is no significant difference in the views of MOE officials, principals, teachers and parents as regards planning of secondary schools academic calendar in Southern Kaduna Senatorial Zone.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study assumed that:
- Parents in southern Kaduna senatorial zone do not see any burden in their financial involvement in funding secondary school in the area of study.
- The maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in southern kaduna senatorial zone is similar to all secondary schools in the state.
- The management of staff in secondary schools in southern kaduna senatorial zone is not different from other secondary schools in Kaduna State.
- The decision making process in secondary schools in the area of study is similar to all secondary schools in the State.
- The challenges of supervision and inspection in secondary schools in the area of study is not different from other secondary schools in the State.
- Scarcity of funds to intensify student‟s academic performance is a challenge to student‟s academic success in Kaduna State.
- The challenges of the management of school facilities in the area of study is similar to all secondary schools in State.
- The challenges in planning school academic calendar in the area of study is not different from other secondary schools in the country.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This research is primarily in partial fulfilment for the award of master degree in Educational Administration and Planning. Secondly the significance of the study will shed more light on the operation of secondary schools and the outcomes or feed back of the study will enhance proper administrative management that involves teachers as the front- runners in the management of secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial zone and Nigeria as a whole.
It is true that the responses or views expressed will assist in reshaping better educational
planning and evaluation leading to setting good organizational climate for teachers to explore
their skills and knowledge for achieving qualitative education in the state. Furthermore, the
developed notion on the role of principals, teachers toward promotion of school management had
been clearly defined and the learning environment enhances for acculturation of learners
In the same vein, the public are bound to benefit from the research since it create better perception on the intention of government on public and private secondary schools as a diversified policy of government that ensure the involvement of private sector in the socio-economic development of southern Kaduna Senatorial zone, but Nigeria as a whole. It is also hoped that the findings will serve as resource materials for other researchers investigating similar or related issues.
Also the findings will help the school administrators to adopt preventive measures of avoiding crisis rather than allowing it to start before measures are taken and also the findings will serve as a resource material for other researchers investigating similar or related issues.
In this regard, assessing the two systems revealed the best communication strategies which our education system need in the state, there by improving secondary school management.
1.8 Scope of the study
There are many secondary schools in Kaduna state that are operating the Day and boarding system of education. However, for an in- depth study of the secondary school management, the study was delimit only to the management of secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial zone, Nigeria. Furthermore, the research was delimited to secondary schools in Southern Kaduna Senatorial zone so as to give it particular attention.
Also, the study will be delimited only on Ministry of Education officials, principals, teachers, and parents.