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EVALUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA
This study entitled the evaluation of Universal Basic Education programme in Kano State. It has seven objectives, some of which were to examine the opinions of principals, teachers, Universal Basic Education (UBE) officials, and Parents Teachers Association (PTA) members on the issues of funding of the UBE Programme, examine the provision of Infrastructural facilities, quality of supervision, adequacy of instructional materials, issue of staffing and ascertain the enrolment and retention of pupils of the UBE Programmes. Research questions and Hypotheses were formulated according to the objectives. The study employed descriptive research design. The population of the study includes the stakeholders in the UBE programmes. Amounting to 1317 from which 330 respondents were sampled, using simple random sampling technique. The analysis was done on 327 copies of filled and returned questionnaire. The instrument used was questionnaire to elicit information, after it had been validated and found reliable with the result at
.743. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Out of the seven null hypotheses, four were retained while three were rejected. Finding of the research shows that there was deficiency in quality and quantity of teachers employed for proper implementation of the UBE Programmes. Also, apart from the provision of school buses for the transportation of students to and from schools, other motivational factors like text books, pens, pencils, uniforms are not provided for the students. And there is no enough classroom blocks to cater for the continuous increment of enrolment of pupil into the programmes. It therefore recommended that qualified teachers should be employed for proper implementation of the UBE Programmes, provision of other motivational factors such as textbook, pen, pencil, uniforms should be provided. Finally, more classroom blocks should be constructed for proper Implementation of the UBE Programmes in Kano State.
1.1 Background to the Study
The place of education as a unique social process that guarantees the skills, competencies and knowledge of an individual, group(s) of persons and indeed the entire society cannot be overemphasized. It is in line with this fact that educationists compartmentalized ways of acquiring and disseminating it into three categories. These are formal, informal, and non - informal education. The justification of this includes but not limited to the curriculum content i.e. nature of instructions, structural process and to a lesser extent the target groups. It is significant to note that this compartmentalization is purely for academic conveniences. Hence, the line separating them is imaginary as evidence of overlapping and infusion of the main features of each category can be found in the other.
Several scholars have advanced the indispensability of education in the life of any nation or individual. Aliyu (2010) viewed education as the greatest fount of empowerment in the whole world. Sidhu (2010) also viewed education as a weapon for combating ignorance, poverty, and disease, as a bridge between confusion and comprehension, as a dam for conserving man‟s store of civilization, and for generating the power to move to greater height as rocket for transforming man from state of intellectual subservience to a state of intellectual sovereignty.
It is pertinent to note that the scientific and technological breakthrough that has been achieved in technologically advanced countries such as Japan, Britain, France, United States of America, China, and other Asia tigers was made possible by heavy investment in education. In line with this disposition, Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) stated that, education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. The Nigerian government has
stated that for the benefit of all citizens, the country‟s educational goals must be relevant to the needs of the individuals and the society, in consonance with the realities of our environment and the modern world (FGN, 2004). However, education (both formal and informal) was a powerful force which transformed the socio-political and economic life of Nigeria from what it was during the pre-colonial independent era.
Basic education is the foundation a child should have for use throughout life. In all aspects of the school and its surrounding, or community, the rights of the child to survival, protection, development and participation are paramount. This means that the focus is on learning which strengthens the capacity of the children to act progressively on their own through the acquisition of relevant knowledge, useful skills and appropriate attitude; and which creates for themselves and others, places of safety, security and healthy interaction (Bernard, 1999).
There is no gainsaying that basic education is crucial to the overall development of any nation. It is not just an instrument for enhancing the life chances of individuals, but it also lays the foundation for transforming the social and economic life of a nation. Our need as a nation, for the eradication of illiteracy, promotion of functional education, reduction of poverty, attainment of an enlightened, economically viable and democratic society, are, in the main, dependent upon an appropriate basic education system for their realization Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). Unfortunately, the state of basic education in Nigeria prior to the ushering in of the new democratic dispensation falls short of what is required for national development. On the whole, the sub-sector, which is perhaps true of the other education sub-sector, was generally acknowledged to be in a sorry state. Decay was evident at all levels of the system. Consequently, there were extremely high rate of illiteracy, poor and collapsing educational infrastructures, poorly trained and motivated teachers, and increasing rates of dropout, inadequate funding and
poor productive quality. Bernard (1999).
Another attempt at universalizing primary education was made when on Thursday, September 30, 1999, Nigeria‟s former civilian president, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme at Shehu Kangiwa Square, Sokoto State. The scheme comprised six-year primary education for all children of school age, and three years of junior secondary education.
The Universal Basic Education Act (2004) stipulates that Every Government in Nigeria shall provide free, compulsory and universal basic education for every child of primary and junior secondary age. Accordingly Federal Government‟s intervention under this Act shall only be assistance to the States and Local Governments in Nigeria for the purpose of uniform and qualitative basic education throughout Nigeria. The UBE Act of 2004 is the Law guiding the activities of the programme in Nigeria. In keeping with the global concern for Basic Education, and being a signatory to numerous conventions, The Nigerian government designed the UBE programme to bring within it ambit; Six years of primary schooling, Three years of junior secondary school, Education of special population such as nomads, girls-child and migrants; and Non-formal and vocational training for out of school youths and adults.
The programme is intended to provide free, compulsory and quality education at primary and junior secondary schools and other aspect of basic education. The overall aim is to make basic education accessible to all target groups. (UBE, 2010)
The UBE programme has a number of objectives, principal among which are listed as follows:
- The provision of free, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school age;
- reducing drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system,
through improved relevance, quality and efficiency;
- catering for the learning needs of young people who have had to interrupt their
schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education ; and
iv. Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate level of literacy, numeracy ,manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical , moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long leaning and a strong commitment to the vigorous promotion of education (Tahir, 2003).
To all intents and purposes, UBE is a reform measure aimed at addressing inequality in educational opportunity at the basic level and improving the quality of provision. This could be seen from the UBE Vision statement. “ At the end of nine years of continuous education every child that passes through the system should acquire appropriate level of literacy, numeracy, communication, manipulative and life skills and be employable, useful to himself and the society at large by possessing relevant ethical , moral and civic values” (UBEC 2005)
Suffice it to say that the universalization of basic education is in tandem with the requirement of the constitution of the Federal Government of Nigeria (1999) where the educational objectives are stated in section 18, that; Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are adequate educational opportunities at all levels; and that government shall eradicate illiteracy, and to this end, government shall as and when practicable provide,”
a. Free, compulsory and universal primary education.
b. Free secondary education
c. Free adult literacy programme
Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) stated thus; Universal Basic Education in a variety
of forms, depending on needs and possibilities will be provided for all citizens. In Kano State, U.B.E takes off immediately after inauguration, but it was bedeviled with problems just like the rest of the nation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The development drive of any nation depends squarely on the quality of education available to its citizens including the young ones and the physically challenged. In other words, education is the life wire of any nation. This sector of the economy is faced with so many challenges that include poor funding, inadequate infrastructural facilities, supervision and inspection, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, poor staffing, enrolment and retention and teacher motivation and commitment. Dare (2009)
The most pressing issues creating set-back for U.B.E programme in Kano State is funding. The U.B.E Act of 2004 compel the federal government to set aside at least 2% of its Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF) to support the implementation of the programme. This 2% is to be disbursed in accordance with the following formula approved by the Federal Executive Council and took effect from January 2009, Matching grants to states =42%, Educational imbalance fund =14%, Special education fund =2%, Good performance fund =5%, Instructional material fund =15%, Teacher development fund =10%, UBE implementation fund =10%, UBE monitoring fund = 2%. U.B.E (2010)
Several reasons have been given for non- accessibility of the UBE funds, these includes; Insufficient consultation with the states in designing and implementation of the UBE programme including project selection; and Inadequate policy coordination across the three tiers of government in the implementation of the UBE programme; Lack of capacity within states to use
funds in accordance with guideline; Apart from weak capacity in accessing the funds, many state governments misappropriate funds released to them.
Quality is enhanced by the provision of adequate numbers and specified of facilities that would comfortably serve as a child-friendly school environment. The facilities include classrooms, separate toilets for boys and girls, technology workshops, and Integrated Science laboratories. According to State of Education Report, 2013.One of the most important facilities in formal schooling is classroom space. In the urban centers, schools are overcrowded, a situation that makes it difficult for teacher-pupil contact, thereby making an effective teaching-learning process difficult. Today, most schools in Kano State are faced with the problems of dilapidated classroom blocks, students receiving instructions under the tree, on the bear floor, no toilet facilities, no water, and no perimeter fence thereby exposing the Students and Teachers to security risk, All these and many more are some of the problems confronting the successful implementation of the UBE programme in Kano State.
Another most pressing issue in education is the issue of supervision and inspection at schools. School supervision and inspection are issues that every administrator or teacher deals with on a daily basis. This and many more are some of the problems confronting UBE programme in Kano state. Other issues confronting the UBE programme is the inadequate provision of teaching and learning facilities in our public schools today. There is inadequate and in some places, lack of instructional materials in some Nigeria schools hampers effective instructional delivery to the pupils in accordance to the stated curriculum objectives. Ezekoka (2009) reported that the problem of lack and inadequate instructional materials is still very much with us in the teaching of the subjects/courses. Instructional materials such as charts, maps, tape recorders, slide, films, television sets, radios, books, and chalk boards still prominent as the main
tools and resources in education. Other material resources have been used and abandoned due to lack of spare parts for maintenance which made the continue usage of books and chalkboard inevitable in classroom instruction. There are no instructional materials and so many teachers do not often use them. This suggests that most schools have not made provision for instructional materials to achieve the UBE programme. Burkett (1987).
Denga (2005) opined that no meaningful education can take place in the absence of an adequately trained and qualified teaching force. This factor is supported by the view of Peter and Igwe (2001) that without dedicated champion, and ideas for social innovation towards U.B.E, the programme will not proceed beyond the initial ideas of proposal stage. Eugene (1969) said
It is hard enough to design public policies and programme like the U.B.E that looks good on paper .It is harder still to formulate such a programme in words and slogans that resonate pleasingly in the ears. And it is excruciatingly hard to implement them in a way that pleases any one at all, including the supposed beneficiaries like the pupils or students. Implementing the U.B.E programme will, frankly speaking, require total commitment of the staff of the U. B.E and availability of adequately trained and qualified teaching force. Eugene (1969)
The absence of teachers in quality and quantity in Nigeria educational system has been responsible to a number of problems. Finally, the issue of motivation of the staff is been affected as a result of the foregoing reasons. Most teachers show lack of commitment to their callings. They only see the teaching profession as a spring board for a better job if the opportunity comes.
The current U.B.E programme has a set of objectives of which this researcher aims at evaluating in Kano State so as to find out whether the stated objectives of the U.B.E programme have been achieved or not .
1.3 Objectives of the Studies
The Objectives of this study are to;
- Examine the opinions of the Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E Officials on the Funding of U.B.E Programme in Kano State.
- Examine the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and UBE Official on the provision of infrastructural facilities for the UBE programme in Kano State.
- Ascertain the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E Officials on the quality of supervision of the UBE programme in Kano state.
- Examine the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the adequacy of instructional materials of the U.B.E programme in Kano state.
- Find out the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on of staffing of the
U.B.E programme in Kano state.
VI. Determine the opinions of Principal, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the enrolment of pupils of the U.B.E programme in Kano State.
Vii. Assess the opinions of Principal, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the level of motivational factors towards teachers‟ commitment U.B.E programme in Kano State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised.
- What are the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the funding of the U.B.E programme in Kano state?
- What are the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the provision of infrastructural facilities of the U.B.E progrmme in Kano state?
- What are the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on supervision of the U.B.E programme in Kano State?
- What are the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the provision of teaching and learning facilities of the U.B.E programme in Kano State?
- What are the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on the staffing issues confronting the U.B.E programme in Kano State?
- What are the opinion of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E officials on enrolment and
retention of pupils of U.B.E programme in Kano State?
Vii. What are the opinions of Principals, Teachers, and U.B.E official on the level of motivational factors on teachers‟ commitment to the U.B.E programme in Kano State?
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers, UBE officials, Parents Teachers Associations (P.T.A) in funding of the UBE programme in Kano State.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of stakeholders on the provision of infrastructural facilities for UBE programme in Kano State.
- There is no significant difference on the opinion of stakeholders on the supervision of UBE programme in Kano State.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of stakeholders on the provision of instructional facilities for the UBE programme in Kano State.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of stakeholders on the issue of staffing of the UBE programme in Kano State.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of stakeholders on the enrolment and
retention of pupils in the U.B.E programme in Kano State
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of stakeholders on the effect of motivational factors on teachers‟ commitments to work in the U.B.E programme of Kano state.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The research is of the following view:
- It is believed that if the state government will be consistent in the payment of its counterpart funding, there will be improvement in the provision of physical facilities, pedagogical facilities, curricular and co-curricular facilities, training of staffs, and social mobilization activities which are geared towards improving access, quality and equality in U B E programme in the state.
- whenever adequate infrastructural facilities are provided for teaching and learning such as classroom , libraries , farm/garden , laboratories , workshops , offices , staff quarters , play field , and indeed the entire school area, there will be success in the implementation of the UBE programme in the state .
- That effective supervision of U.B.E programme will lead to a successful implementation of the U.B.E goals and objectives.
- Whenever there is adequate teaching and learning facilities in schools comprehension of instructions by pupils would be facilitated and also makes delivery of lesson much easier for the teacher.
- The development of any nation depends on those who operate in the man power production industries; these are teachers and schools as the industry. Quality teachers will turn out quality pupils and low quality ones will produce their kind. So, it is of the
opinion that qualified and competent teachers are necessary for the implementation of U.B.E programme.
- One of the main objectives of the UBE programme is full enrolment and retention of pupils in school. So all the activities and functions are towards these realizations. So, it is assumed that all the children of school age are in school in Kano state.
- That motivation leads to purposive and organized behavior by the people either at work or elsewhere. It is expected that, all things being equal, Kano state UBE teachers are highly committed.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The research work will serve as a reference document for policy makers, especially at the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) to ascertain to what extent the UBE aims/ objectives, vision and mission have been achieved, so as to provide a lee-way to re-strategize on those factors militating against the successes of the programme, as well as improve on those achievements already recorded since 1999 to 2014 when this research was conducted.
The findings made by the researcher will to a large extent be of immense benefits to the government at both state and federal level towards achieving its educational policy of providing universal basic education for all.
The findings will also reflect on the significance of funding, provision of infrastructures and above all the quality and quantity of teachers for the success of the UBE programme in Kano State and Nigeria at large.
The outcome of this research finding will be of great significant to the stakeholders (that is; the Nigerian children to attain their full potentials and become responsible and
independent citizens. Parents and guardians that ignorantly hide under the banner of socio
– cultural and economic consideration to either refuse to send their children to Western school or withdraw girl- child for early marriage or hawking. Classroom teachers to improve their quality of service delivery. Educational administrators in the area of effective and efficient management of human, financial and material resource management .Corporate-bodies, Multinational organizations, Government and non –
Governmental organizations in the area of policy formulation and implementation, training and retraining of staffs through seminars, workshop and funding and also provision of infrastructural and instructional facilities of the programme.)That are in one way or the other related with the success of the UBE programme.
The research will be of great significance to researchers that want to further their research on U.B.E programme in future.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study focused on the Evaluation of the Management of Universal Basic Education Programme in Kano State, Nigeria.
- All the primary and junior secondary schools in the forty-four (44) local Government Areas in Kano state.
- The geographical scope of the study is Kano central educational zone which has 9 local governments.
- Two hundred and ninety-three sampled public primary schools. Twenty-five sampled junior secondary schools in Kano state. Through simple random sampling technique.