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EVALUATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN KADUNA STATE (2004-2010)
The study evaluated the Universal Basic Education Programme in Kaduna State (2004-2010). The research objectives for the study were to: find out the rate of enrolment and retention of pupils in primary and junior secondary schools during the UBE programme in Kaduna State from 2004-2010;find out the status of recruitment and re-training of teachers in primary and junior secondary schools during the UBE programme from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State; assess the facilities for teaching and learning in UBE primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State; find out the funding adequacy of UBE primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State from 2004-2010; and assess the work of monitoring and quality assurance unit of U.B.E from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State. In line with the above objectives, Five research Questions and Hypotheses were developed for the study, out of the five hypotheses four were retained and one rejected at 0.05 level of significance. The study covered 10 local government areas including the SUBEB Officials, principals, head teachers and Local Government Education Authority staff. The study adopted descriptive research design using survey method, a total of 375 respondents were selected as sample for the study through the use of simple random sampling techniques. Frequency and percentage table was used for tabulating the data and One-Way ANOVA was used in testing the hypotheses formulated for the study. The findings of the study among others include: The UBE had significant impact on the enrolment and retention of learners in primary and junior secondary schools of the state within the period under study; There was re-training during the period but it was not adequate; facilities, materials and equipment for teaching and learning were not adequately provided during the period; Funding of the schools was not adequate due to what the respondents regarded as mismanagement of the education personnel responsible for the implementation of the programme; The monitoring and quality assurance of education in the period was considered to be fairly adequate; The respondents did not differ significantly on the rate of enrolment and retention, recruitment and re-training of teachers, funding, monitoring and quality assurance of the educational programme of the schools during the period under study. based on the above findings, the study recommended that, a process of accountability should be established with the educational system such that funds meant for projects are seen to be utilized for them as a way of reducing mismanagement of funds in the state educational system; Where such direct establishment is not possible some checks and balances should be built into the existing system to ensure that funds allocated for the programme are efficiently utilized; The respective government needs to allocate more fund to the UBE programme to effectively tackle the problems of inadequate facilities, equipment and materials for teaching and learning in primary and junior secondary schools towards the attainment of the basic education objective in the state; Employment of teachers should be based on merit for effective teaching and learning in the schools and among others.
1.1 Background to the Study
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) is a broad concept and more ambitious programme than that of the universal primary education (UPE), the Universal Basic Education is intended to inculcate more forcefully on the life of Nigerians than the Universal Primary Education. Although the Universal Basic Education is a programme, it also an educational programme for the acquisition of functional literacy and skills, the type of education that will inculcate an understanding of the need for unity such that is required in Nigeria the development of conduct and attitudes that can foster unity, patriotism and tolerances, special emphasis should be placed on peace and unity, that unities us in our diversity. It is necessary to what it takes to make a nation strong and self reliant, above all to impact into the citizenry a sense of belonging so as to make them respond to their responsibility(Achuonye,2004 & Ada,2002).
The Nigeria educational system is guided by clearly defined aims and objectives, which are intended to mould the society into the defined form through the instrumentation of educational outcome from time to time and facilitates a clear understanding of the successes status of our educational programme. Education is an instrument of social, mental and economic development, through which right values and attitude for proper development are inculcated. Educational innovation consequently evolves whenever there are deficiencies in or problem with the accomplishment of objectives. Among such innovations are the introduction of universal primary education (UPE), the 6-3-3-4 system of education, introducing technology, integrated science and so on and recently the universal basic
education (UBE) was launched by president Olusegun Obasanjo in Sokoto on the 30 September 1999.
During the launching ceremony of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) the honorable minister of education in his speech stated that universal education in Nigeria is response to the education for all nations of the global community (Aluede,2006, Adelman, & Alexander,2002) . More so, the programme was envisaged to be a solid foundation for life along learning and evolution of Nigeria into a learning society in order to improve th+e average literacy rate of Nigerians from the current 51% to something close to 90%. The primary and pre-primary level is very important because it is here that the foundation should be consolidated at the junior secondary level of the programme. Despite the National Policy on Education (NPE) in revised (2004), which has provided that the mother tongue be used as a medium of instruction to English in the upper primary classes, most schools around the country use English right from nursery and primary schools.
Similarly, the policy provisions for these languages to be taught as school subject are not being implemented in most schools around the country. In nomadic and adult education, the intention is to give opportunity to those who by virtue of the culture and social economic background, were unable to benefit from the formal education early in life are to be treated specially along with the deaf and dumb, disable and blind. The treatment revolved adequate materials for learning( Ani,2010 & Major 2012). In 2000, the United Nations adopted the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the minimum development priorities that governments should adopt and work towards achieving by 2015. Goal 2 explicitly states that all countries should ensure that all children have access to free and compulsory primary
education of good quality by 2015. The Nigerian government introduced the Universal Primary Education (UPE) as an educational programme aimed at eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty, and thereby simulates and accelerates national development. The programme was introduced into the country in 1999 in conformity with the Education for all (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as an integral part of poverty reduction strategy.
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) came as a replacement of the UPE scheme of 6-3-3-4 system (six years of Primary Education, three years of Junior Secondary, three years of Senior Secondary and four years of Tertiary Education. It involves six years of tuition free primary education and three years of free Junior Secondary Education. This entails 9 years of free uninterrupted schooling for every Nigerian child of school age. Education has remained a social process in capacity building and maintenance of society for decades. It is a weapon for acquiring skills, relevant knowledge and habits for surviving in the changing world. Invariably, the major problem identified in the Nigerian UBE system lies in the automatic promotion, that is, 100% promotion and transition for 9 years. This indeed is a mockery of any form of evaluation done at this level and is bound to reflect on the standard of education in no distant future. In particular the provision for the out of school population has remained obscure since eight years of its introduction and inception. It is against the background that, this study evaluated the implementation of Universal Basic Education programme in Kaduna State (2004-2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Universal access to education has been prime target for Nigeria in the last four decades and Nigeria is a signatory of World Declarations on Education for all. Igwe (2006) reported that the United Nations Organization (UNO), article 26 on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states in part that everyone has the right to education, and this shall be free in elementary and primary stages. So, both at the national and international levels, Nigeria is committed to the provision of basic education to all its citizens. Many attempts have been made in this direction but no appreciable positive results have been recorded.
In spite of the Federal Government‟s effort to achieve her anticipated objectives of UBE, the scheme has not registered meaningful impact in the society. Considering the importance of the UBE, it has become pertinent to investigate problems facing the programme. Some of the changes have appeared to a number of people desirable while others have not been able to meet the desired target. Many of the changes in educational policies in Nigeria have been a product of inadequate planning. There is therefore, a high level of uncertainty which is bedeviling the implementation of this programme in Nigeria schools. The learners are not provided with learning materials; many schools lack library facilities; teachers are not well trained to meet up with the current trend; and many more. These situations call for much concern as the young ones are the future leaders of this country. It is against the above backdrop that, this study aims at evaluating the Universal Basic Education programme in Kaduna State from 2004 to 2010.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following research objectives were developed for the study
- Find out the rate of enrolment and retention of pupils in primary and junior secondary schools in the UBE programme in Kaduna State from 2004-2010.
- Examine the status of Recruitment as well as Re-training of teachers in primary and junior secondary schools in the UBE programme from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State.
- Assess facilities for teaching and learning in UBE primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
- Determine funding adequacy in UBE primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State from 2004-2010.
- Ascertain the work of monitoring and quality assurance unit of U.B.E from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State.
- What is the influence of the UBE programme on the admission and retention of pupils in primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State in 2004-2010?
- What is the influence of UBE programme on the recruitment and re-training of teachers in primary and junior secondary schools from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State?
- Does government provide facilities for the UBE programme for teaching and learning in primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State?
- How adequate is the funding of primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna state from 2004 -2010 in the UBE programme?
- How effective is the UBE monitoring and quality assurance services in 2004-2010 in Kaduna State?
1.5. Research Hypotheses
The following were the hypotheses generated for the study:
HO1.There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the influence
of UBE in the admission and retention of pupils in primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State from 2004-2010.
HO2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the
influence of UBE in the recruitment and re-training of teachers in primary and junior secondary schools from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State.
HO3.There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision
of facilities for teaching and learning in primary and junior secondary schools through the UBE programme in Kaduna State.
HO4.There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on UBE in
funding of primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna state from 2004 - 2010.
HO5.There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on effectiveness
of monitoring and quality assurance unit of U.B.E from 2004-2010 in Kaduna State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions:
- The UBE programme has increased the rate of admission and retention of pupils in primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State from 2004-2010.
- Recruitment and re-training of teachers under the UBE programme in primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna state is poor.
- The government provides adequate facilities through the UBE programme for teaching and learning in primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna State
- The funding of primary and junior secondary schools in Kaduna state from 2004 - 2010 through the UBE programme is inadequate.
- The monitoring and quality assurance unit of U.B.E programme is not effective in discharging its functions in Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
It is expected that the findings and recommendations will be helpful to various academic institutions, non-governmental organization, and government at all level in their attempt to use UBE programme as an instrument per se for enhancing education among Nigerian children. In addition, the study will contribute to existing literature through its findings, which will succeed in confirming the fact that, the UBE programme policies in Kaduna State has been implemented as required. Finally, this study serves as resource materials and compass for educational administrators because, it is expected to provide directions for them on what to do in order to make the U.B.E programme to stand the test of time .Also, an information bank, for future researchers who may be interested in the subject matter.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The rational was cumulatively built upon the fact that the study seeks to justify if there is
the programme with regards to improvement in basic education of
and related persons
in Kaduna State .
Government Education Authority, SUBEB Officials, government Primary
Secondary Schools in Zaria, Sabon- Gari, Chukun Igabi, Ikara ,Kaduna North, Kaduna
South, Makarfi, Giwa and Soba
area in Kaduna
State. Fact that,
can be used
to make generalization about
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Evaluation: evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
Basic: is defined as something that is necessary to know or learn.
Education: the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally ofpreparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
Universal: including or covering all or a whole collectively or distributively without limit or
Universal Basic Education: The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme is a nine (9) year basic educational programme, which was launched and executed by the government and
people of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to eradicate illiteracy, ignorance and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate national development, political consciousness and national integration.