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IMPACT OF COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION AND ENRICHED LECTURE METHOD ON INTEREST AND PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This study examined the Impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Enriched Lecture Method on Interest and Performance in Physics among Secondary School Students, Zaria Nigeria. The study developed five research objectives among which included the determination of the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities on interest and academic performance of students exposed to wave concept of physics in Senior Secondary Schools of the study area. The study was guided by five Research Questions and four null hypotheses. Two research designs: namely, Survey and Quasi-experimental-control group designs involving pre-and post-tests were used in this study. The population of this study covered all public Senior Secondary Schools with population of one thousand six hundred and ninety six (1,696) year II physics students as at 2014/15 academic session out of which a total number of 198 SS II students were sampled from three public Senior Secondary Schools of Zaria education zone selected using systematic sampling technique. Three validated instruments developed by the researcher namely; Availability of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities Questionnaire, Wave Performance Test and Wave Interest Inventory Questionnaire with reliability coefficients of 0.8, 0.7 and 0.9 respectively were used for the study. Research Questions raised were answered using means and standard deviations, while null hypotheses were tested with inferential statistics using t-test and Analysis of Varience at 0.05 level of significance. Results of finding showed that there is significant difference between the mean academic performance of students taught wave concept using Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities enriched with lecture method and those taught the same concept using Lecture Method in favour of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities enriched with lecture method groups. Also, there is significant difference between the interest of physics students‟ taught wave concept using Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities enriched with lecture method and Lecture Method at Senior Secondary Schools of the study area. Similarly, the findings revealed no significant difference between the mean academic performance scores of male and female students taught wave concept of Physics using Computer-Aided Instruction and those taught the same concept using Lecture Method only at Senior Secondary Schools of the study area. The study recommended for the need of state government to train and retrain teachers on the use of Computer-Aided Instruction in teaching physics at Secondary School level. .
Physics is one of the science subjects taught at senior secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria. It is defined as that branch of science which is concerned with fundamental ideas about nature and attempts to establish relationships between different quantities as precise as possible. According to Okpala,(2001), physics is a physical science subject that is concerned mainly with matter as it relates to energy. The subject also deals with the study of laws that determine the structure of the universe with reference to the matter and energy in the universe (Ike, 2002). Physics is the most utilized basic science subject in most instruction and instruction-related professions. It is based on this that the Federal Government of Nigeria (FRN, 2013) placed the subject as one of the core subjects that each science student must be exposed to at Senior Secondary School level as stipulated in the National Policy on Education..
The importance of Physics for the development of a nation can not be over emphasized. As noted by Josiah (2012), the knowledge of physics facilitates the understanding of other disciplines: Physics is also a cross-cutting discipline that has applications in many sectors of economic development, including health, agriculture, water, energy, and information instruction. For instance, understanding of Physics is quite necessary for developing new instrumentation and techniques in the health sector: With the help of medical physics, the right equipment for the diagnosis of diseases and the efficient communication of medical data are acquired.
Adeyemo (2010) added that Physics is a unique subject, which promotes the acquisition of specialized science skills and knowledge, which explain the natural phenomena of life in the society. It is a subject that grew up with civilization as man's
quantitative needs increased. It has contributed to the development of the sciences and to the development of civilization.
The study of Physics enables learners and practitioners in the field to understand the changing and existing world. Physics as a school Subject helps to make sense of the universe and that is why physicists are always developing theories to describe the physical world, checking these theories for in consistencies, experiments to test these theories, making predictions on the basic of the experiments and progressing to apply the new knowledge for a better understanding of the universe (STAN,1990).
In studying Physics, students acquire the knowledge and the skills to understand how and why natural things happen the way they do; to make predions and venture into unknown areas of knowledge and more importantly using the knowledge and skills to design and make new things. Physics is the study of events in the universe (both remote and immediate universe). A physicist looks at the matter making up the universe, the motion and energy of matter, the cause effect relationship of matter and energy, and the application of natural phenomena.
Despite all these benefits, reports by the Nations Examination bodies (WAEC and NECO) indicated that students‟ performance in the subject is relatively poor over the years. Performance of students in the subject at secondary scchool level in the country has been a matter of concern to various people and government at various times (West African Examination Council, WAEC, 2013). According to WAEC (2013), candidates that offered physics performed poorly in the areas of understanding of the concepts of waves, sound, Electrolysis, writing of formulae as well as explanation of basic principles, concepts and their applications. Physics is one of the subjects in which the students‟ performance at the SSCE level has remained persistently low in recent time, (WAEC, 2013). The poor performance of students in Physics at SSCE is attributed to a
number of factors ranging from teachers‟ attitude, the learners‟ attitude, and the curriculum, method of instruction and instructional materials, mathematical deficiency among others.
According to previous studies, (Resnick, 1989, Okeke, 1995 & Josiah, 2012), a lot of factors like utilization of inappropriate teaching methods in schools, poor quality school science teachers, lack of enough teaching facilities and school location attributed to students‟ poor performance in physics. Onyeka, Nneka and Augusta (2012) attributed poor performance to inadequate qualified teachers, equipment, poor attitude of students and poor understanding of the concepts due to their abstract in nature. It had been reported that a problem confronting Physics students in Nigeria is that some of the teachers are not qualified as such unfamiliar with the names and use of some science equipments and facilities (Akpan, 2006).
As the educational sector is faced with series of changes and reforms in Nigeria and other developing countries, and as Nigerian government place higher emphasis in achieving millennium development goals (MDGs) by 2020 through science and instruction, it is good to reflect on matters concerned with physics and the dissemination of physics knowledge and lessons. To ensure this, several strategies for teaching physics have been developed which correspond to the accommodation of students' need and diverse learning method.These teaching methods range from Demonstration, Project, Group Work, Cooperative Learning, Expository, Inquiry, Discussion, multimedia-technique, Field-Trip, Questioning-Technique, Simulation, Experimental, Team teaching, Verbal Instruction, Lecture method, Bainstorming, Problem Solving, Role playing and Drama, Filmed Taped,Individualised, Use of Fiction and Use of Local Resources (Akinyemi, 1997, Akpan, 2001, Obeka 2010 & Josiah 2012 ). This study will
focus on the use of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities in teaching Physics.
Computer-Aided Instruction is any instruction used in producing, organizing and passing information to students. Computer-Aided Instruction encompasses computer and telecommunication. It is concerned with the instruction used in handling, acquiring, processing, storing and dissemination of information. Similarly, in educational term, Computer-Aided Instruction can be understood as the application of digital equipment to all aspects of teaching and learning (Adeyemo, 2010).
According to World Bank, Computer-Aided Instruction consists of the hardware, software, networks, and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information; the use of Computer-Aided Instruction, as stated by Adeyemo, (2010), falls into four (4) major categories; constructing knowledge and problem solving (through the internet-mail, CD-ROMs, databases, videoconferencing); using process skills; aiding explanation of concepts; and communicating ideas.
The use of Computer-Aided Instruction in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that will assist in imbibing in them the required capacity for the world of work. Very few jobs today do not require the use of skills in instruction, collaboration, teamwork, and information; all of these can be acquired through teaching with Computer-Aided Instruction. It fundamentally changes the way we live, learn and work. Though tried with other science subjects, the use of the Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) is not common in Physics especially at the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) level which is the focus of this study. The Computer is an electronic device used for executing precisely stated rules with accuracy, rapidity and with real reliability. According to Unongo (2009), computer is capable of making calculation, storing information in various fields of study, designing devices, and making
graphical representation of engineering parts and providing leisure in form of music. Studies have also shown that computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Tuncer (2013) and Inci, John, Nilgun and Ozge (2006) all found the use of the computer in teaching to facilitate performance in Physics and other sciences. However, integration of ICT into education system in Nigeria is poor.
Instruction has entered the classroom and become part of the teaching and learning processes. However, teaching physics as a science oriented course is known for its abstract nature. Sometimes the physics teachers do not have adequate knowledge, but have to fall on ideas which lead to contradictions with what the physics theory says or meant. Students are left on their own, even when they are to read on their own, they find no material to read, where it is available most of them are obsolete material. That is, some of these materials include text book, journals, research publications and news papers. Where these materials are lacking, the students are forced to loose interest, motivation and passion; in some cases frustration sets in and students abandon the discipline or subject matter (physics) for another which they can cope with i.e. students leaving science class because of physics to Commercial or Art subjects, simply point to the fact that other disciplines are not abstract in nature like that of physics.
Similarly, Busari (2006) ascertained that the whole world is experiencing the advancement of science and instruction. Each nation is either a powerful producer of instruction or a consumer of other nation's instruction efforts. In fact instruction has made the whole world a global village and Computer-Aided Instruction breakthrough has made a new landmark in globalizing education. The use of Computer-Aided Instruction is fast gaining prominence and becoming one of the most important elements defining the basic competencies of the students.
Despite the abstract nature of physics, its teaching is to bring about scientific thinking in students; a mindset that requires students to test out, through experimentation. However, through the use of Computer-Aided Instruction, whether CD-Rom, power point, among others. A number of studies have been made on Computer-Aided Instruction such as instructional radio, television, computers among others, and result shows that it is an effective media for imparting knowledge to the learners. For example, Wubbles, Brekelmans and Hoomayers (1991) opined that educational radio provides listening, participation, effective means of presenting studies, team teaching and increasing student‟s performance.
Educational Television is another Computer-Aided Instruction facility in teaching physics and it was recognized as a vital medium for education, information and socialization. Some studies have been done on television as an effective instructional media.For instance, Brown (1995) indicated that students remember only 10% of what they read, and about 20% of what they learned and 50% of what they hear and see. This indicates that television has the potentiality of performing this task but when effectively and correctly utilized by the teachers and learners.
Laboratory has been conceptualized as a room or a building specially built for teaching by demonstration of theoretical phenomenum into practical terms (Farombi, 1998). Laboratory is essential to the teaching of sciences and the success of any science course is much dependent on the laboratory provision made for it. It could be described as a place where theoretical work is practicalized whereas practicals in any learning experience involves students in activities such as observing, counting, measuring, experimenting, recording observation and carrying out field work. Laboratory helps to provide a forum wherein the learner is given the exercise to subjects, his beliefs, ideas, statements and theoretical propositions. to some forms of experimental test (Soyibo, &
Nyong 1984). To maintain and arouse the interests of students in subjects involving laboratory work, the teacher should be effectively involved in order to transfer knowledge and facts to learners for a good performance in any examinations. In line with this, one then pauses to ask: To what extent has Laboratory Facilities are available in our science laboratories to achieve its objectives?
Writing on the situation of our secondary schools today, Okoli (1995) reported that laboratories have become shelves of empty bottles of chemicals. In terms of academic performance, Soyibo and Nyong (1984) have shown that schools with well-equipped laboratories have better results in the school certificate science examinations than those that are ill-equipped. Yadar (2007) opined that no course in science and mathematics can be considered as complete without including some practical work. Owoeye and Yara (2011) investigated the provision of Laboratory Facilities as it relates to Academic Performance of students in agricultural science in Ekiti state of Nigeria between 1990 and 1997, the results showed that there were no significant differences in the performance of students between rural and urban secondary schools in term of availability of laboratory facilities.
Interest is another variable in this study. It is a feeling of curiosity or concerned about subject that makes the attention turn towards it. Okafor (2000), described interest as the attraction which forces or compels a child to respond to a particular stimulus. Obeka (2009), views interest as the course of certain actions which acts as drive that propel student to act in certain ways. It is a type of attitude when share in some characteristics of cognitive, affective and psychomotor components. Aggarwal (2008), is of the opinion that interest is a feeling that prompts individual to impulsive acts. It is an inspiring vigor that impels student to attend to an activity as well as effective experience that has been stimulated by the activity itself. Research report (Okafor, 2000) shows that
due to abstract nature of physics, students developed negative interest towards it. This may affect their performance in the final year examination. It is against this background that this research was conducted to determine the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities enriched with lecture method on academic performance and interest of students in waves concept of senior secondary physics students.
1.1.1 Theoretical Framework
This study is based on constructivism, which is associated with the work of Piaget (1980) and Bruner, (1960). Piaget talked about the developmental stages of learning of concepts and this sudy used the students of average age of 17 and above. For the purpose of this study, Bruner‟s model of teaching learning of concepts served as theoretical framewok. According to Bruner, (1960), constructivism is a theory of learning that individuals create their own new understandings on the basis of interaction between what they already know and believe and ideas and knowledge with which they come into contact and based on prior experiences. The constructivist perspective holds that meaningful learning or understanding is constructed in the internal world of the learner as a result of his or her sensory experiences with the world. The teacher in the classroom serves as a guide or facilitator.
The concept of learning by doing is a psychological concept that implies allowing students to learn by doing within the classroom context is a departure from traditional methods. The scholar further reitretes that concept learning involves deliverate introduction of certain concepts and sub-concepts in order to enhance meaningful learning and retention of the learning materials perceived difficult to leraners. The introductions of materials are meant to provide pre-requisite knowledge that will assist the learners to understand a specific concept.
Bruner (1960) proposed the subsumption model of learning which is based on prior knowledge and is used for intepretation of new information to be learned. Thus, he proposed the idea that meaningful learning takes place only when a general subsuming concept is available in learners‟ cognitive structure and that such idiosyncratic concepts are usually derived from currently held concepts. According to Bruner (1960), the requisite advance organiser can be used when no anchoring idea are available to the learners. That is,when new learning material is unfamiliar to the learner. Bruner ascerted that; for any meaningful learning to take place, new materials to be learnt must be carefully linked to the the learners‟prior knowledge, otherwise rote learning will take place. The scholar suggested that development occurs as mental structures become more elaborate and sophisticated through interaction and experience: learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their prio knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. In this study, Bruner‟s model of learning by doing is adopted as a theoretical framework for the study.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Research reports and available literatures over the years (West African Examination Council,WAEC, 2013) revealed that poor performance among senior secondary students in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) Physics still persist. According to the released result for 2011 examination, the National Examination Council (NECO, 2012) has recorded mass failure in the November/December Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in science subjects. Only 10 percent of the candidates that sat for the examination scored credit and above in the core subjects such as English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Geography and Physics (Bello, 2012). The WAEC Chief Examiners‟ reports betwen
2008 and 2013 also revealed that students‟ performance in Physics examination is becoming low. The report shows that in 2008, a total number of 1330 students registered for physics exam out of which 20.5% were able to pass at credit level while 79.5% failed. In 2009 the percentage of failure was 69%, and 70% in 2010. The rate of failure increseaded to 73% in, 2011,75.4% in 2012 and 76% in 2013. According to previous studies, poor performance in physics has been attributed to insufficient man power, equipment, and poor attitudinal interest of students, poor understanding of the concepts due to their abstract nature resulting to errors in practicals.and such problem has been traced to lack of appropriate teaching method, laboratory facilities, equipments and apparatus. Means of communicating science to learners by teachers must be pursued so as to achieve the desirable goal through an effective methodology for any concept, such as the use of Computer-Aided Instruction and laboratory facilities.
Investigations reveal that many students at the senior secondary school in Nigeria strongly detest the manners in which the physics teachers handle and deliver physics knowledge and lessons. (Adeyemo,2010). Research report (Busari 2006 & Adeyemo, 2010) further indicated that Computer-Aided Instruction facilities in secondary schools of Nigeria are inadequate. Where there is availability of such materials, their usage become very difficult or impossible. Factors identified among researchers are the class-size poor reading skills of science and instruction students, the state of laboratory and Computer-Aided Instruction facilities, methods of teaching and learning of science subjects among others. The problem of this study therefore hinges on what is the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities on physics students‟academic performance in wave concept at Senior Secondary level in Zaria Education Zone?
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are; to:
determine the availability of Computer-Aided Instruction and laboratory facilities for teaching physics in Senior Secondary Schools of the study area.
assess the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities on the academic performance of students exposed to wave concept of physics in Senior Secondary Schools of the study area.
examine the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction, Laboratory Facilities and Enriched Lecture Method on students‟ interest in wave concept of physics in Senior Secondary Schools of the study area.
assess the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities on male and female students‟ academic performance exposed to wave concept of senior secondary school physics.
examine the impact of Lecture Method on academic performance of male and female students exposed to wave concept of senior secondary school physics.
1.4. Research Questions
The following Research Questions are framed for answering;
What is the state of availability of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities for teaching physics at Secondary Schools of Zaria?
What is the difference in the mean academic performance scores of students taught wave concept using Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities and those taught the same concept using Lecture Method?
What is the difference in the mean interest of students taught wave concept using Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities and those exposed to Lecture Method in Senior Secondary Schools?
What is the diference in the impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities on male and female student‟s academic performance when taught wave concept of physics at Senior Secondary Schools?
What is the difference in the mean academic performance scores of male and female students‟ taught wave concept of physics using Lecture Method ín Senior Secondary Schools?
1.5. Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are formulated and tested at p ≤ 0.05 levels of significance.
H01: There is no significant difference between the mean academic scores of students taught wave concepts using Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities and those taught the same concept using Lecture Method.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the interest of physics students‟ taught wave concepts using Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities and Lecture Method at Senior Secondary Schools.
HO3: There is no significant difference between the mean academic performance scores of male and female students‟ taught wave concept of Physics using Computer-Aided Instruction and those taught the same concept using Lecture Method only at Senior Secondary Schools.
HO4: There is no significant difference between the mean academic performance scores of male and female students‟ taught wave concept of Physics using laboratory facilities and those taught the same concept using Lecture Method only at Senior Secondary Schools.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will hopely be significant to teachers, students, textbook authors, other researchers and curriculum planners in the following ways:
The finding of this might motivate physics teachers to source the appropriate Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities through request from the concerned authority, tertiary institutions as well as improvised were necessary for teaching the subject.
Aid in the attainment of national objectives of secondary education especially in the improvement of students‟ performance in physics examination. According to FRN (2013), the National Aims and Objectives of Education in Nigeria are: The inculcation of National consciousness and National unity; The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society; The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around us; and; The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities, and competences both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society.
Text book authors might found the study very useful and use the outcomes in publishing physics textbooks for secondary schools which consequently expand the frontier of knowledge.
Other researchers undertaking similar studies in this field may use the outcomes of this study as a source of literature of their study and build upon it.
Curriculum planners such as NAERDC can use the outcomes of this study, design and include programmes in the physics curriculum that are in line with Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities to aid meaningful learning in our schools.
Professional development bodies such as STAN will utilise the outcomes of this study and organise seminars, workshops, Conference and in-house training to physics and other science related teachers on effective used of Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities in teaching.
1.7. Scope of the Study
The research examined the Impact of Computer-Aided Instruction and Enriched Lecture Method on Interest and Performance in Physics among Secondary School Students in Zaria education zone, Kaduna State. Senior Secondary (SSII) students were used for this purpose. The justification behind the use of SSII students rests on the fact that students at this level are perceived most suitable for research of this nature. They are neither introductory SSI students engaging in registration, accomodation,busy to be acquinted with the environment nor final year, SSIII students deeply concentrating on mock and final year examinations. The research were delimited to only public Senior Secondary Schools offering physics in Zaria education zone. The characteristics nature of these students are publically owned, average age of 17 years and coeducational.
Wave concepts drawn from SSII syllabus were used as a content for teaching experimental and control groups. The concept of waves treated in this study are;
definition of waves
type of waves; (transverse, longitudinal, stationary waves)
applicaton of waves; and;
simple calculations in wave concept.
The use of this concept can be justified based on the fact that physics curriculum emphasised its teaching at SSII level and that most of the concepts of wave are abstract in nature having limited instructional facilities (Adeyemo, 2010). According to WAEC
(2013) Chief examiner reported that these concepts appeared annually in the SSCE and perceived by students as difficult concepts that yield in their failure.
The Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities which this study seeks to determine their impact are; instructional television; instructional radio; computer; projectors; internet facilities; and; compact disk. The justification behind the choice of these facilities is their accessibility and affordability and un-fragile nature for use in our schools. Such facilities were prescribed to be available in school but are kept for other purposes other than physics teaching. The time extent for the study lasted for six weeks.
1.8. Basic Assumptions
In carrying out this study, the researcher assumed that:
Teachers employ variety of instructional strategies in teaching physics.
Classroom environment in the study area is conducive enough in facilitating effective teaching with Computer-Aided Instruction and Laboratory Facilities and Lecture Method.