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INCIDENCE OF RIFAMPICIN RESISTANCE TB AMONG TB HIV CO-INFECTED PATIENTS
1.1 Background to the study
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic airborne infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). According to a World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 report, MTB remains a major public health problem, ranking above HIV/AIDS. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among infectious diseases worldwide WHO, (2016). The best estimate of TB deaths in 2015 was 4 million, with an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among HIV-positive people. In terms of cases, there were 10.4 million new TB cases, of which 5.9 million were men, 3.5 million women, and 1 million children detected. Cases that remain undetected continue to suffer from TB disease and also transmit the disease to their contacts Morrison, Pai, Hopewell, (2008).
Tuberculosis/Human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) co-infection has been a common phenomenon for decades, causing a substantially high morbidity and mortality with Tuberculosis ranking as the most common opportunistic infection and the most common cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) especially in resource restricted countries Manosuthi W et al, (2008) Corbett EL et al., (2003). In the year 2013 alone about 1.1 million new cases of TB were reported in HIV positive patients glob-ally where Majority of them (up to 78%) occurred in Africa WHO, (2014). Tuberculosis occurs as the first manifestation of HIV/AIDS in more than 50% of HIV positive patients WHO, (2004) and deaths that are linked to TB are significantly high especially in sub-Saharan Africa where in some countries this rate is reported to be in excess of 50% WHO, (2011).
Early initiation of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the course of TB treatment has been shown to have a mortality benefit and WHO strongly recommends on co-treatment of HIV/TB co-infection, with a rapid scaling up of Antiretro-viral therapy programs especially in resource restricted coun-tries, where tuberculosis is for the most part the widespread opportunistic disease. Lawn SD, Torok ME, Wood R., (2011) In these areas thus ART is regularly initiated when patients are being treated for tuberculosis, with a goal line being to provide an effective and safe Antiretroviral therapy and anti-tuberculosis management which is efficient enough to cure and prevent recurrence and resistance Friedland G et al., (2006).
Despite this overall success, HIV and TB co-treatment faces a number of important challenges including induction of sub-therapeutic levels of both Non Nucleotide Reverse Transcrip-tase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) and Protease Inhibitors (PIs). Rifampicin which is the most important component of anti tuberculous medications is remarkable for its induction effect on CYT P450 isoenzymes which may adversely increase the metabolism and disposition of both NNRTIs and PIs which can potentially cause inadequate plasma levels of these drugs and severely limiting the treatment options for optimal Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) regimens especially in resource limited settings. Whereas it has been established from prior studies that Rifampicin may be a cause of significant suboptimal levels of both NNRTIs and PIs, sub-therapeutic ARV plasma levels as a consequence have been demonstrated to be associated with inadequate virological suppression which may subsequently lead into selection of resistant strains and a long term inadequate immune recovery and overall poor clinical outcome Brinkhof MW et al, (2007).
In developed countries this challenge is overcome using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) that is readily available for routine practical use where the patients’ NNRTIs and PIs plasma levels are monitored for any adverse drug levels, and corrections of dosages are timely done to improve the therapeutic outcomes. TDM has been usefulness in a number of clinical settings including monitoring of ARV plasma levels in TB/HIV co-treatment. In this regard a better treatment outcome has been documented among patients whose treatment was TDM guided than those whose ARV plasma levels were not monitored. Even though TDM is not done in most of the resource limited countries, the available studies from these settings demonstrate that a significant proportion of HIV patients co-treated with anti Tuberculous drugs (Rifampicin) have sub-therapeutic NNRTIs and PIs plasma levels and some of the locations have reported even higher rates of sub-therapeutic ARV (NNRTIs and PIs) plasma levels than most of resource rich countries Boulle A et al, (2008)
1.2 Statement of the problem
The prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of TB has become more complicated because of HIV-associated TB and multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. Many people die of TB owing to delayed diagnosis, which makes people, mainly in the sub-Saharan region, unable to reduce transmission significantly, and thus the epidemic continues. A global TB report estimated that there were about 230,000 (247 per 100,000 population) incident cases of TB in Ethiopia. In the same report, there were about 16,000 deaths (18 per 100,000) due to TB, excluding HIV-related deaths during the same period. Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-TB-burden countries, 10th among high-TB-pandemic countries, and fourth in sub-Saharan Africa WHO, (2015).
Worldwide emergence of MDR-MTB has been reported in both developed and developing countries Sethi, Sharma, Sharma, Meharwal, Jindal, Sharma, (2004). Smear microscopy is widely used for the rapid diagnosis of TB, but it does not detect DR-MTB or sensitivity. In individuals who are coinfected with HIV, the detection rate varies between 20% and 50%. Results of mycobacterial culture turnaround require about 2–8 weeks, though this is not widely available in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Getahun H, Harrington M, O’Brien R, Nunn, (2007) and Pai M, Kalantri S, Dheda, (2006) This creates a diagnostic delay that hinders disease control, enhances transmission, and increases health-care costs.
Continuous surveillance of the primary and acquired DR patterns of MTB is vital in assessing the efficacy of treatment regimens, as well as in detecting problems related to previous TB treatments. However, in developing countries, TB-culture and DR testing are not routinely carried out as part of the laboratory workup, owing to extreme economic disparities, low literacy, and impaired basic health-service delivery. Determining the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant MTB with advanced technology is critical to prevent drug resistance, like MDR-TB and extensively DR-TB. As far as the literature is concerned, little work has been done to document information systematically on the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant among TB and HIV co-infected patients in Benue State of Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was to examine the Incidence of Rifampicin resistance TB among TB HIV Co-infected patients in Benue State of Nigeria while the specific objectives were to:
- To examine the CD4 levels of HIV patients diagnosed of TB in Benue State.
- To examine the TB type of TB patients diagnosed of HIV in Benue State.
- To examine the treatments methods of HIV TB of co-infected patients in Benue State
- 4. Causes of rifampicin resistance TB among TB HIV Co-infected patients in Benue state.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the CD4 levels of HIV patients diagnosed of TB in Benue State?
- What is the TB type of TB patients diagnosed of HIV in Benue State?
- What are the treatments methods of HIV TB of co-infected patients in Benue State?
- 4. What are the causes of rifampicin resistance TB among TB HIV Co-infected patients in Benue state?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The results from this study will be useful to assist the overall optimization of management of patients on ARV/anti-TB co-treatment especially in resource limited settings.
Also the results from this study will provide a base for further studies on the subject and add to the existing body of knowledge regarding ARV plasma levels especially in resource limited countries.
1.6 Scope of the Study/Limitation of the Study
The scope the study was delimited to Incidence of Rifampicin resistance TB among TB HIV Co-infected patients in Benue State of Nigeria.
In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the nurses on duty and medical record units also constituted a constraint in the study.