Every material on this site is authentic and was extracted from the complete available project.Click to GET IT NOW
MS-WORD DOC || CHAPTERS: 1-5 || PAGES: 154 || PRICE: ₦3000
INFLUENCE OF BRANDING AND CONSULTANCY SERVICES ON SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
This dissertation was a perceptional study in which the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria was investigated. The indices were; Construction and management of sporting facilities, Funding and financial management, Performance of coaches, athletes and sports managers, Sports organizational structure and personnel management and Hosting of the National Sports Festival. Related literature was reviewed. From a population of 7,441 made up of coaches, athletes and sports managers, 372 respondents were sampled for the study. A set of questionnaire designed by the researcher, vetted by supervisors and jurors and tested through a pilot study, was used to solicit the opinion of respondents. The data generated was analysed using descriptive statistics (one-tailed t-test) to test the major and first six sub-hypotheses while the Pearson Product Moment was used to test the sub-hypothesis on the correlation between the influence of branding and consultancy services on the indices of sports development in Nigeria. Results revealed that branding and consultancy services influence funding and financial management, performances of coaches, athletes and sports managers as well as selection and specialization in sports by athletes in Nigeria. However there is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on the construction and management of sporting facilities, organisational structure and personnel management in sports and hosting of the National Sports Festival in Nigeria. It was recommended that National Policy on Sports should be reviewed in order to inculcate new methods and strategies towards enhancing sports development initiatives in the country while branding experts and sports consultants should intensify regular training and retraining programmes for coaches, athletes and sports managers to update their knowledge and skills. For further studies, it would be of academic interest to investigate why sports fans in Nigeria
prefer foreign clubs and athletes to their home based counterparts.
1.1 Background to the Study
This research was aimed at investigating the influence of branding and consultancy services on the development of sports in Nigeria. It has been observed by this researcher that Nigeria is a sports loving country. This is demonstrated by the fact that Nigerians always forget about their ethnic, religious, political and socio-economic differences and unite in solidarity to support individuals, clubs or teams representing the country in international competitions. Sports have proved to be a uniting force for Nigerians over the years and many youngsters in the country continuously get involved in various sports with the desire to earning a living. Many Nigerian sports men and women have become professionals, heroes and legends in their respective sports. Any intellectual or physical initiatives, efforts and activities (including branding and consultancy services) geared towards improving the standards of sports in Nigeria therefore, is a right step in the right direction as it will go a long way to enhance sports development in the country..
Smith (2000) defined branding as a technique in which businesses utilise the images or portraits of well known personalities as a marketing strategy to enhance the sale of their products or services. It also refers to the act of giving a particular name and image to goods, events and services so that people will be attracted to patronise them. Branding includes the use of a wide variety of sports products by companies like Adidas, Puma, Nike and Reebok who are well-known producers and manufacturers of wears and other sports goods. These and other smaller companies manufacture and sell products bearing the logos, portraits and images of popular sports personalities. Marketers use branding as a strategy to advertise and make favourable impact to sell their products or services to the targeted customers.
Sheth and Parvatiyar (2005) reported that in the United States of America (USA), the names and logos of sports organisations, sports personalities and sporting events are known as „Intellectual Property‟. These names and logos must be registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Once registered, such names and logos become brands (trademarks) of the organisations which registered them. Under the United State‟s Federal Trademark Act of 1946 (commonly referred to as the Lanham Act), a brand, also known as a trade mark, is defined as any word, name, symbol, device or combination thereof adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods and distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others.
Ballantyn and Varey (2006) reported that branded uniforms create a sense of togetherness as well as apartness as they define who is a supporter of a particular brand and who is not. The act of using, wearing, or displaying branded products, indicates to others that the user is a supporter of a particular sports entity. Sports fans may not be able to play like or even have access to their sports heroes, but having branded products enables them to possess images or portraits of such heroes and have the privilege of affiliating with others who share similar interests. In any case, branding helps sports fans to express with pride their club sentiments and fraternal feelings and it provides a sense of belonging through solidarity.
In Nigeria, Okafor (2008) explained that the registration of brands is done at the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) and any unregistered production, re-production, counterfeiting, copying or imitation in commerce of a registered brand, are prohibited by law Companies that do not pay for the rights of brands are barred from manufacturing or advertising products bearing such brands. Application for registration must include the logo, portrait or image of the brand as well as a written description of the brand for easy identification of the goods and services for which the registration is sought. However, sports organisations could transfer the right of use of their names, marks, portraits and logos to companies to be used in packaging products for sale.
The concept of branding in sports marketing in Nigeria according to Okafor (2008) was first coined in 1978 in Lagos, by a firm called „Advertising Age‟ which described branding as the activities of marketers who use sports as a promotional vehicle towards attracting consumers to their products and services. From that time, the use of images, names and photographs of sports personalities to advertise beverages, cars and a whole range of other products and services, was clearly noticed all over the country on television, radio and in the print media. He argued that most consumers have vested interest and are more drawn to their favourite teams and sports personalities than they are to company products.
Consultancy on the other hand, is defined by Barrow (2007) as the provision of expert advice to an individual or organisation towards the attainment of a project or programme. It is a process of providing advisory services or guidance to students, researchers, athletes, government agencies or some other professional and business clients. The process of consultancy may involve some degree of measurement, technical analysis, data processing and designing of plans and strategies as well as general services rendered by registered individuals, corporate organisations or government agencies. Consultancy services could be commercial or non commercial and the process crucially depends on a high degree of intellectual input from the professional to the client, with the aim of achieving targets and fulfilling aspirations. This process requires confidentiality and trust since it focuses on addressing the specific needs of the client by applying existing knowledge and skills.
From the Latin word „consultare‟ meaning to discuss, Wright (2004) explained that a consultant is a person who interacts with individuals and groups to provide professional or expert advice in a particular area such as; Business, Accountancy, Environment and Waste Management, Tax Law, Human Resource Development, Marketing, Security, Food production, Immigration, Medicine, Sports, Public Policy, Administration, Communication, Architecture and Engineering. He stated that one clear advantage of consultancy services is that clients have access to deeper levels of expertise and information.
Slack and Bentz (2006) described a consultant as an experienced individual who is trained to analyse and advise a client to make the best choice from possible alternatives. The consultant diplomatically exerts influence over an individual, group or organisation but without direct authority to implement changes. There are two categories of consultants; internal and external. The internal consultants are those who operate permanently within an organisation while the external consultants are those engaged from outside. Making use of both categories creates the basis for solid planning, execution, supervision and evaluation of projects and programmes.
Emielu (2000) reported that Nigeria is a country located in West Africa and lies between latitude 4oN and 14oN and between longitude 3oE and 15oE. The country has a total land area of 923,700 square kilometres. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with Abuja as the Federal Capital. The National Population Commission (2008) reported that based on the 2006 census, the country has a population of 140, 431,790 with a national growth rate of 3.2 per cent. This population is made up of more than 250 ethnic nationalities comprising over 4,000 languages and dialects. The country is divided into six geopolitical zones with each of the zones having a cluster of states as follows;
- South-South has six states; Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Rivers, Delta and Edo.
- South-East is made up of five states; Abia, Imo, Anambra, Enugu and Ebonyi,
- South-West comprises six states; Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Ekiti
- North-East has six states; Borno, Yobe, Adamawa, Taraba, Gombe and Bauchi.
- North-West comprises seven states namely; Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Zamfara, Sokoto, Kano and Jigawa
- North Central comprises six states; Kogi, Kwara, Niger, Benue, Plateau, Nassarawa and Abuja, the FCT.
Fig. 1: Map of Nigeria indicating the 36 States and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).
Adedoja (2009) explained that in Nigeria, sports development started with informal competitive sports which had their origin in villages and among ethnic groups and were used for entertainment during recreational past-time activities. This humble beginning subsequently developed into a prominent phenomenon that could no longer be ignored in the socio-political and economic life of the nation. Missionaries introduced formal sports in Nigeria and in the course of history both formal and traditional sports have evolved to be widely accepted and practiced. Formal sports organisations started around 1910 with the introduction of Empire Day competitions, which were organized on inter-schools basis. Though most of the sports were alien to Nigerians, they were welcomed because they served the common goal of recreation, entertainment, social mobilization and the promotion of unity in diversity. The establishment of Mission schools in different parts of Nigeria assisted in the development of these sports and the introduction of new ones. Since then, many individuals,
public institutions and private organisations have been making sundry contributions towards sports development in the country.
The researcher observed that in Nigeria; the drive by companies to use sports brands to boost the sale of their products, the behaviour of consumers towards branded products and the need for branding as a marketing strategy that can match the demand of sports consumers with company products, have become quite complex. Also, transactions in different spheres of human endeavours (sports inclusive) are increasingly becoming sophisticated, thereby, justifying the need for consultancy services. As a result of these observations, the researcher investigated the influence of branding and consultancy services on selected indices of sports development in Nigeria. In this regard, the indices selected are; Construction and Management of Sporting Facilities, Funding and Financial Management, Sports Organisational Structure and Personnel Management, Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Managers, Selection and Specialisation in Sports by Athletes and Hosting of the National Sports Festival (NSF).
1.2 Theoretical Framework
This study was based on two major theories reflecting the two major dependent variables of „branding‟ and „consultancy‟ namely; Service Logic Theory of Branding and Strategic Consultancy Management Theory.
1.2.1 The Service Logic Theory of Branding
According to Gronroos and Gummesson (2001) the service logic theory of branding refers to the mutual interaction between producers of brands and consumers towards the overall marketing success. The service logic theory was propounded by the Nordic School of Thought in the late 1960s. Since then, the use of the theory for branding in sports marketing has become an internationally accepted as well as a widely practised phenomenon. In Europe,
research into two kinds of service based marketing started to develop in the early 1970s. The first originated from the Nordic countries and was goods and products oriented while the other one started from France and was customer friendly. Proponents of the service logic theory of branding took a standpoint that, branding was needed as a new marketing perspective that will excite customers.
Shedding light on this theory, Gummesson (2004) stressed that, customer preferences were influenced by a number of systematic and inter-related factors such as proximity, quality of content, marketing environment and product quality. These factors provide an atmosphere for interaction between marketers and customers. The service logic theory of branding is a practical demonstration of a symbiotic relationship between marketers and consumers. This means that both marketers and their customers interface in the market processes where they mutually contribute to and benefit from one another. Branding experts should know this and be able to create values and benefits for customers in the marketing process.
In their contribution on the service logic theory of branding, Vargo and Lusch (2005) suggested that branding could be a business function on its own and successful sports marketing must be the responsibility of the sports branding experts. Experts that utilise this theory provide knowledge, skills and motivation to handle interactions with customers in a marketing fashion. Similarly, a good marketer creates a conducive atmosphere through branding that enhances the quality of interaction to influence customers‟ perception and interest and to enable them find value for their money.
1.2.2 Strategic Consultancy Management Theory.
Selznick (2001) reported that the Strategic Consultancy Management Theory was propounded by the Classical School of Thought in the early 1970s. It refers to the practice in which consultants interact with and help organisations to improve their performance through the development of various strategies. Applying this theory enables organisations to benefit
from the services of consultants in so many ways via professional and technical expertise. As a result of their exposure and experience with organisations, consulting firms are aware of the best practices in the industry. In this theory, three essential questions usually asked by both consultants and clients are; Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there?
Commenting on this theory, Witcher, Craigen, Culligan and Harvey (2001) stressed that applying the strategic consultancy management theory depends on the circumstances facing each organisation. The Classical School of Thought is of the view that, this theory is the most accepted and deployed theory for consultancy services in many countries. In this theory, the responsibilities of the consultant include making an environmental scan which highlights all pertinent aspects that affect an organisation. Such a scan helps to uncover areas of strength and weaknesses in addition to revealing areas in which expansion is needful. The strategic management consultant screens all options for an organization in order to select the most suitable, feasible and acceptable. For instance, in processing a contract, applying this theory helps the organisation to determine whether a particular contract will be awarded on the basis of selective tendering or through the advertised public bidding process.
Patton (2001) stressed that in this theory, the task begins with the formulation of a mission statement which outlines the targets of an organisation. The consulting firm specifies the scope of activities which the organisation wishes to undertake and sets time lines for completion of tasks. In this process, methodologies are clearly stated, strategies and procedures for evaluation are earmarked and feedback mechanisms are articulated. The use of the strategic consultancy management theory squarely depends on the size of an organisation and the business environment. For instance, a global/transnational organisation may employ a more structured strategic management model, due to its size, scope of operations and need to encompass all stakeholders‟ views and requirements. It is in contrast to the entrepreneurial
approach utilised by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) due to their comparatively smaller sizes, restricted scope of operations and meagre resources.
Gratton, Shibli and Coleman (2005) explained that in strategic consultancy management theory, consultancy options are evaluated using the following three key criteria for success; suitability, feasibility and acceptability.
(a) Suitability (Is it reasonable to work it out?)
Suitability deals with the overall rationale of the strategy. The key point to consider is whether or not the consultants‟ strategy will smoothly address the key issues and the needs underlined by the organisation. The strategic consultant should provide answers to questions such as; Does it make economic sense? Will the organization be on a vintage position? Will it be suitable in terms of environment and capabilities?
(b) Feasibility (Can it be made to work?)
Feasibility is concerned with determining whether or not the resources required for full implementation of the consultants plans and strategies are available. If not, can they be developed or improvised? Resources include; funding, man-power, general equipment and information. Strategic consultants must be able to forecast resource deployment especially cash flow and predict whether or not the organisation will be able to meet up with time, satisfy specifications for quality and be able to break even.
(c) Acceptability (Will it be valued or appreciated?)
Acceptability is concerned with the expectations of the identified stakeholders such as; shareholders, employees, community leaders, pressure groups, customers, managers, coaches, athletes, fans and the general public. The expected performance out-comes are in two categories; returns and risks. Returns have to do with financial and non financial benefits expected by stakeholders at the end of each programme or project. For instance, shareholders
would expect increase in their wealth through
improved share value, employees would expect improvement in their welfare packages, sponsors and donors would expect better value for their money while coaches, athletes and fans/supporters would look forward to winning laurels. Risks deal with the probability and consequences of financial and non financial failures of a strategy. The outcome of risks determines the possibility of continuity or severance of transactions between consultants and their clients.
From the foregoing, the researcher has observed that four principles are commonly in operation in both the service logic theory of branding and the strategic consultancy management theory. These principles are;
(a) mutual interaction among the principal actors,
(b) practice requires expertise,
(c) knowledge of the operational environment
(d) target for value or profit on investment.
These principles are vivid and transcend the transactions between sports branding experts and consumers as well as between sports consultants and their clients. The two theories were selected as the basis for this study because the four common principles they possess are relevant towards understanding the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria. These principles could be used by branding experts and sports consultants in Nigeria to generate activities and services which will enhance the capacity of coaches, athletes and sports managers, thereby influencing sports development in the country.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria is the main thrust of this study.
Langerd and Eiglier (2001) viewed branding as a marketing approach that is geared towards facilitating interactions with customers in the consumption process. They narrated that in France, the foundations for incorporating branding within the scope of marketing services were laid in the early 1980s. During the same period in North America, branding jobs were made available to organisational staff through internal marketing strategies. Marketers were able to use branding to boost sales of existing products and enter new markets by using the logos, portraits and images of popular sports entities.
According to Booms and Bitner (2001), branding was incorporated in China as an additional marketing strategy to existing orthodox practices in order to augment the marketing mix. In sports, fans/supporters of a particular athlete or team will more likely purchase the products that have the logos, jersey numbers, names and colours of such athlete or team than the products of unbranded players or teams. Similarly, they pointed out that, trends come and go at irregular intervals so that what is hot fashion and latest today can be outdated, old fashion or obsolete tomorrow. This is so because society is dynamic.
In their contribution, Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2004) observed that regardless of the sophistication and effectiveness of the branding programme of a sporting organisation, teams that win tend to sell the most branded merchandise. Also, companies such as Adidas, Nike, Reebok and Puma etc, seem to have established a niche in the branding market, thereby setting the pace for products from other companies to follow. As a result of this, the branding experts of these companies keep employing strategies to outwit each other in the branding business to attract and retain customers.
It has been observed by this researcher that in Nigeria, sports fans especially in Football are more affiliated to foreign based players and teams than those in the domestic league. This may be as a result of the intensive media coverage and the use of foreign based sports personalities for branding programmes which make them more popular in the country than their home based counterparts. Similarly this researcher has noted that marketing agents in Nigeria now prefer to use the portraits, logos and images of celebrities in the film and music industries than those of sports personalities to brand and advertise their products. This could be attributed to the rapid growth and increase in the activities of Nolly Wood as a film industry in the country.
1.3.2 Consultancy Services.
Bitner (2002) disclosed that the workability and effectiveness of consultancy services differ from one organisation to another depending on the peculiarities of each organisation. Services provided through consultancy include; technical assistance, development of coaching skills, drawing
of road maps for implementation, designing strategies for development and general improvement strategies in organisational operations.. Strategic consultants often bring their own proprietary to bear in the identification of problems, choice of procedures for implementation and evaluation which serve as the basis for effective and efficientperformance of tasks.
Bryson (2005) explained that in practice, a consultant may be hired as an Interim Manager and is expected to bring a combination of specialist expertise and experience to bear on the assignment. Some consultants are employed indirectly by the client via a consultancy firm that recruits consultants on a part time basis. In such circumstances, the firm itself does not usually have consulting expertise but works rather like an employment agency for different professionals.
Slack and Bentz (2006), shared a similar view with Bryson by stating that sometimes, consultants form a consortium in order to deliver services to their clients. In a building construction for instance, architects, building engineers, quantity surveyors, mechanical and electrical engineers could form themselves into one unified body to work towards delivering such a project. The slight difference in the two opinions is that while Bryson explained that a firm gets the job and recruits professionals to handle different aspects, Slack and Bentz maintained that professionals voluntarily come together to form a union (consortium) to do the job.
This researcher has observed that consultancy has been in practice in Nigeria for some time now in many facets of human endeavour especially by universities and it is fast becoming
prevalent in more government and private businesses. However, sports consultancy is still in its infancy in the country and there seems to be poor patronage of consultancy services in sports. This could be due to lack of awareness about the services rendered by sports consultants in the country. Also, sports consultancy seems to be more prevalent in the southern states than in the Northern parts of Nigeria. This might be the reason behind the success and rapid development of the sports sector in states like Lagos, Edo, Delta and Rivers and the dismal performance noticeable in the Northern states. The cost implication for engaging consultants and the general apathy towards sports in some parts of Nigeria might also be responsible for the disparity in consultancy services in parts of the country.
This research was conducted in order to determine the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria. Specifically, the perception of respondents about the following selected indices of sports development were investigated in the study; Construction and Management of Sporting Facilities, Funding and Financial Management in sports, Sports Organisational Structure and Personnel Management, Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Sports Managers, Selection and Specialisation in Sports by Athletes and Hosting of the National Sports Festival (NSF). The researcher is of the view that if branding and consultancy services have any influence on sports development in Nigeria, carrying out this research becomes very relevant.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to;
- Determine the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria.
- Find out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on the construction and management of sporting facilities in Nigeria.
- Find out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on the Funding and financial management in sports in Nigeria.
- Find out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on the Organisational structure and personnel management in sports in Nigeria.
- Find out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on the Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Sports Managers.
- Find out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on the Selection and specialisation in sports by athletes in Nigeria.
- Find out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on the Hosting of the National Sports Festival in Nigeria.
- Establish the correlation between the influence of branding and consultancy services on the indices of sports development in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Questions
This study was guided by the following research questions:
- Is sports development influenced by branding and consultancy services in Nigeria?
- Do branding and consultancy services have influence on the construction and management of sporting facilities in Nigeria?
- Do branding and consultancy services influence funding and financial management in sports in Nigeria?
- Do branding and consultancy services influence the organisational structure and personnel management in sports in Nigeria?
5. Do branding and consultancy services influence the performance of
coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria?
- Do branding and consultancy services have influence on the selection and specialisation in sports by Athletes in Nigeria?
- Is the quality of hosting of the National Sports Festival enhanced through branding and consultancy services in Nigeria?
- Is there any correlation between the influence of branding and consultancy services on the indices of sports development in Nigeria?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated for this study:
There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on the construction and management of sporting facilities in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on funding and financial management in sports in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on the organisational structure and personnel management in sports in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on the performance of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on selection and specialisation in sports by athletes in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of branding and consultancy services on the hosting of the National Sports Festival in Nigeria.
- There is no significant correlation between the influence of branding and consultancy services on the indices of sports development in Nigeria.
1.7 Basic Assumptions
This study was based on the following assumptions;
- Branding and consultancy services influence sports development in Nigeria.
- Branding and consultancy services influence the construction and management of sporting facilities in Nigeria.
- Funding and financial management are influenced through branding and consultancy services in sports in Nigeria.
- The organisational structure and personnel management in sports are influenced by branding and consultancy services in Nigeria.
- The performances of coaches, athletes and sports managers are influenced by branding and consultancy services in sports in Nigeria.
- Selection and specialisation in sports in Nigeria is influenced through branding and consultancy services.
- Branding and consultancy services influence the quality of hosting of the National Sports Festival in Nigeria.
- There is significant correlation between the influence of branding and consultancy services on the indices of sports development in Nigeria.
1.8 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study cannot be overemphasised due to the fact that many individuals and groups stand to derive knowledge and lessons from it. Those to benefit from this study include sports men and women, coaches, fans, teams, clubs, associations, federations, students and lecturers.
Since the study aimed at finding out the perceived influence of branding and consultancy services on the development of sports in Nigeria with regards to different indices of sports development, it is a guide for prospective sports branding agents and potential sports
consultants. Also to benefit from the findings of this study are State Sports Councils, Ministries for Youth and Sports Development and the National Sports Commission also.
Similarly, states which are prospective hosts of the National Sports Festival would derive lots of information from the study of the phenomena of branding and consultancy services and their influence on sports development in Nigeria. By and large, the findings from this study could be used by government, branding experts and sports consultants to strategically improve on the efforts and initiatives towards sports development in Nigeria.
This study is a meaningful contribution to the increasing knowledge and literature on sports marketing especially branding as well as consultancy services in sports. It would be a good reference material for students and researchers. This study is quite significant because it highlighted current trends on branding and consultancy as practised in the sports sector. The study also highlighted other factors related to sports development which can be used for planning and policy formulation by sports administrators and for future research works.
1.9 Delimitation of the Study
This study was concerned with finding out the perception of respondents about the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development in Nigeria. The study was restricted to branding and consultancy services only as practised in the sports sector. Therefore, investigations did not reflect branding and consultancy services as practised in other fields of human endeavour except those mentioned in the review of related literature that have been compiled and published by earlier researchers and authors.
The study was also restricted in scope to only the selected indices of sports development which are contained in the research questions and hypotheses and for which the influence of branding and consultancy services was investigated. Specifically, the indices of sports development selected for this study are; Construction and Management of Sporting
Facilities, Funding and Financial Management, Sports Organizational Structure and Personnel Management, Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Managers, Selection and Specialisation in Sports by Athletes as well as Hosting of the National Sports Festival.
The study included; athletes, coaches, managers such as State Directors, Deputy Directors and Assistant Directors of Sports, State Sports Association Chairmen and Organizing Secretaries as well as Chairmen and Technical Directors of Sports Federations.
The study was restricted in geographical scope to Nigeria only. In this regard, all the six geo-political zones in Nigeria; the South- South, South-East and South-West as well as the North-East, North-West and North-Central, were covered in the study.
1.10 Limitations of the Study
It was the desire of the researcher to have investigated the influence of branding and consultancy services on the support given by sports fans in sports in Nigeria. However, identifying the fans and getting their total number across the country was not possible. Therefore, the researcher excluded the support from sports fans from the indices of sports development and excluded sports fans from the population and sample of the study.
Another limitation was the security situation in the North Eastern states of Nigeria at the time of administering the questionnaire which made it difficult for the researcher to physically visit Bauchi and Taraba States to administer the research instrument. As a result, the questionnaire was sent by email to the Research Assistants (RAs) in the two states who down loaded, printed and distributed copies of the questionnaire to respondents. These Research Assistants were trained through documented guide/instructions sent to their emails and further explanation through the mobile telephone conversations. Movement was a big challenge for the Research Assistants in Bauchi and Taraba States and that fact accounted for low retrieval of the distributed questionnaire from those two states.