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INFLUENCE OF TEACHER QUALITY AND CHANGES IN MINIMUM STANDARDS ON PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION EDUCATORS IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION, NIGERIA
This study focused on influence of teacher quality and changes in minimum standards on performance of Primary Education educators in Colleges of Education, Nigeria. It focused on issues which influence PED educators implementing curriculum changes. In this study, nine objectives were formulated which covered different variables which include: the extent of influence of the educational levels of PED educators and increase in course content on the implementation of changed PED minimum standards in Nigerian Colleges of Education. Nine (9) null hypotheses and nine (9) research questions were formulated based on the objectives of the study. The theoretical framework of the study hinged on models of curricular dissemination by adopting Context, Input, Process and Product Evaluation (CIPP) and Integrated Curriculum Evaluation Model (ICEM. This study adopted expost facto research design; The targeted population covered the eighty-three colleges of education in Nigeria with total of seventy-seven thousand, three hundred and eighty six (77,386) made up of seventy six thousand, five hundred and twelve (76,512) PES students and Eight Hundred and Forty-Two (842) PES educators. A purposive sampling technique was adopted in selecting the sample for the study. Three geopolitical zones, namely, North West, South West and South South were selected for the study. The study also adopted 20% of the colleges as sample size. A total of thirteen colleges made up of four (4) federal and nine (9) state colleges of education were sampled. An interview was conducted on NCCE officers, while questionnaires were administered to PES educators, NCE II and NCE III PES students, including PES products teaching in staff schools and their head teachers. The research questions were subjected to simple percentages while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square at P value of P<0.05 level of significance for acceptance or rejection and all the tested hypotheses were rejected. The findings among others revealed that
PES educators’ area of specialization has significant influence on the implementation of the changed PES minimum standards in Nigerian colleges of education. Based on the above findings, it was recommended amongst others that effort should be made to ensure that only specialized professionally trained PES educators be assigned to implement the changed minimum standard curriculum in colleges of education. Also, the changes of minimum standards should not be done too often, the act that mandated every five years of changes should be strictly adhered to by the NCCE.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is the vital instrument for social and economic mobility at the personal level and an instrument for transformation of society at the national level. The maxim that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers clearly demonstrates the roles of teachers in national development (FGN, 2004). This realization enforces each country to make vigorous efforts to produce qualified persons to take up the teaching of her citizens as teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times, the correct identification of indices of development(s) in the society. Its versatility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of constant search for updated knowledge, latest information, skills and breakthroughs, in various fields of life (Adeorun, Oni, Oladipo, Onuoha and Yakasai, (2009).
In Nigeria as in many other developing countries such as South Africa, Ghana, education has usually been considered to be the cornerstone and pillow of economic growth and developments. Oredein and David (2007) believed that to survive in the competitive world of economy, quality education is the key variable. Grounded in this belief, education reforms have taken place that are directed towards improving the quality of education. These reforms are demanding greater performance and commitment from teachers, holding teachers responsible for the performance of students mostly right from primary schools.
Primary school pupils have the right to be taught by competent teachers who give a clear understanding of how pupils imbibe instructions and such teachers must acquire appropriate skills and knowledge in terms of educational background and area of specialization to carry out their assignment. Primary education serves as the foundation level of all other educational levels
by providing the children with a good preparatory ground for further education. In realization of the important role and the place of primary education in National development and globalization, there has been agitation for more functional, qualified and competent teachers to handle the teaching of basic education pupils across the nation. This agitation and concern for quality primary education is reflected in the compulsory introduction of Primary Education Studies (PES) in all colleges of education in Nigeria. It is also reflected in the inauguration of education for all (EFA) in Jomtien (Thailand) in 1995 and Dakar in 2000 (Sofowora, 2010). This was followed by a meeting called by the 56th General Assembly of the United Nations to discuss the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
According to Sofowora (2010), the effort at ensuring quality primary education was not left to government alone but to such societies as Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE), Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) and the Information society, also sponsored and organized international conferences and workshops aimed at ensuring quality access to primary education were considered. However, at the global level, the United Nations came up with a target that all member states should seek to achieve the following goals on Basic education:
- Ø Ensuring that by the year 2015, all children particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities should have access to a
complete, free, compulsory and good quality primary education.
- Ø Ensure that the learning needs of all young people are in line with the MDGs.
- Ø Eradicate extreme illiteracy, poverty and hunger.
- Ø Achieve universal primary education by 2015. (Sofowora 2010, p. 13)
For the above mentioned points to be achieved, the important point to note is the area of how to get quality teachers that will be able to teach the pupils and meet their individual educational needs and aspirations. It demands for teachers that are specifically trained to be able to inculcate quality skills and knowledge to the pupils being carefully considered. Then, the focus should be on production of qualified PES teachers and the need for continuous changes in minimum standard of the teacher training institutions.
Nigeria as one of the signatory countries to the Universal Declaration Conference, was compelled to implement the UNESCO (2001) mandate to provide high standard and good quality primary education for every child. In 1999, former president of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) as a strategy to bring quality education to every child. Omotayo, Ihebereme, Maduewesi, (2008) attribute poor management and lack of quality assurance as responsible factors for the failure to realize the goals of primary education.
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme launched in September, 1999 was designed as an improvement on the Universal Primary Education (UPE). Obanya (2000) summarizes Basic Education at that level, as a type, and form of learning needed to build firm roots for literacy and numeracy, to inculcate basic life skills and more importantly, to consolidate the skills of learning how to learn. Sofowora (2010) articulate further that the launch of UBE will lead to other problem in primary education that is, disparity between the expected school enrolment and the actual enrolment. Poor management of information leads to conflicting statistics about the number of primary schools. The inability of the country to meet the target set for Primary Education Studies to effectively handle primary schools. Omotayo et al (2008), identifies problems responsible for poor implementation of primary school to include: financial problems, incompetent instructors, overcrowded classrooms, continuous changes in minimu
standard and lack of quality control and proper implementation. Consequently, the above problems led to the decline in standard at all levels of education. Presently, there is the challenge of professionally qualified teachers (Sofowora, 2010). According to Egwu (2009), there are alarming difference between teachers certified qualifications, most especially in PES departments, NCE Level; and their actual teaching competence and performance on the job. Statistics revealed that a large number of teachers having below the National Certificate in Education (NCE) abound in North-East and North West (70%). Based on statistics obtained from Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria (2004), the short fall in competent, certified and qualified teachers are: 969,078 for early childhood care development education, 338,147 for primary education, 581 for JSS, 1,580,000 for adult literacy and 12,329 nomadic education (Sofowora, 2010).
This however, takes the form of what is regarded as Quality Assurance. Quality Assurance according to Egwu (2009), is a mechanism used to evaluate the efficiency and appropriateness of teaching and learning in educational institution so as to ensure the delivery of high quality education. It is also a holistic method of identifying and resolving problem within the educational system in order to ensure continuous and quality improvement. It can also be described as means of disseminating information regarding the quality of primary education. Sofowora (2010), further explained that the challenges of lack of quality or qualified teachers, quality of teaching and facilities must be resolved if schools are to offer quality education.
Bara’u (2009) emphasized that the significant roles played by teachers in modifying, expanding and rejuvenating the curriculum content in an effort to meet the needs of the students, parents and the society cannot be underestimated. The implementation of any educational
systems curriculum depends to a large extent on the availability of the right type of personnel and their willingness to impart the desired knowledge to the learners.
This study examined the operational functions of PES school, which is the major unit saddled with the production of teachers for basic education levels. It is imperative that a good foundation is laid for Nigeria educational system especially at the foundation level because one area in which the implementation of the past and present curricular in Nigeria schools has been handicapped is the area of lack of qualified teachers to teach in the educational institutions (Ajayi, 1985). This serves as a means of ensuring that the quality of the teaching force in primary school, is increased and only qualified teachers handle primary classes.
It was rightly pointed out by Fabunmi (1997), who observed that the governments (federal and states) have had to create PES department in all colleges of education and universities and encourage primary school teachers to seek admission into these institutions for further training by providing in-service training. According to National Educational Quality Assurance Policy (2004), Nigeria is concerned with eight (8) components of quality standards itemized as learner achievement and standards; learners welfare and participation; guidance and support, leadership and management, school community relationship; learning environment, teaching and learning; curriculum and other activities (FGN, 2004). The above mentioned eight
(8) components of quality standards can be achieved when the products of PES are well trained since some of the above components are embedded in the PES minimum standards. The objective of PES as reflected in the minimum standard NCCE (2009), include:
- Discuss intelligently the main ideas that have affected and affect the development and practice of education in Nigeria.
- Examine the main psychological, health and socio-economic factors that may help or hinder a child’s educational performance.
- Study learner’s approximately to determine the most effective ways of relating to them to ensure their maximum achievement.
- Develop, select and effectively use appropriate curriculum processes, a strategy, instruction materials and methods for maximum learner achievement.
- Broaden learned perspective in effort to lay solid educational foundation for children.
- Demonstrate desirable attributes in moral and character required of children trainers.
- Discuss intelligently, major issues affecting teacher education and their professional issues attainment.
- Identify major problems of basic education in Nigeria and their corresponding solution. (NCCE 2009, p. 32)
A closer look at the above stated primary education studies objectives show that majority
of the components listed could be attained through proper implementation of PES minimum standard.
Educational system will continue to expand for a long time in the nation if teachers will be able to teach to reflect the eight components of the quality assurance policy and to achieve the above listed objectives of PES. Instead, personnel teaching in the PES department have gone to these institutions with the aim of increasing their life time earning as well as attaining a higher socio-economic status of being guaranteed a “secured job” (Bara’u, 2009). Quantitative expansion of Primary Education Studies (PES) requires quantitative increase in teaching personnel. It suffices to point out, that as important as the quality of teaching personnel is, so is
their quality. Both constitute the back-bone for fruitful academic achievements of PES products as well as the success of primary school pupils.
The recognition given to primary education as the foundation for other level of education has led to the compulsory establishment of Primary Education Studies Department now upgraded to a School in all Colleges of Education, federal, state and privately owned colleges (FGN, 2004). This is to ensure that primary education is handled by teachers who have been professionally trained to teach. The trained teachers and officials of the ministry of education are accusing the low level of education over teacher’s performance and parent’s attitudes vis-a-vise their children education. The teachers union and the society on the other hand, are pointing accusing fingers at the recruitment of unqualified teachers and absence of proper monitoring by means of supervision and inspection. They also point at the lack of in-services training and the shortage of teaching materials in teacher training colleges and primary schools, non-challant attitudes of the learners and teachers to their duties, lack of recognition given to teaching profession in comparison to other professions. This shows that everyone is to be blamed (Fabunmi, 1997).
Teacher education programmes have been introduced for all levels of education (Oyeinike, Adesoji and Adebayo, 2009). One of such was the Advanced Teachers’ Colleges, known today as Colleges of Education. These institutions fall under the supervision of the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and are responsible for awarding Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) to its graduates. Today, there are Eighty Three (83) such colleges in Nigeria. In addition to these are faculties of education in almost all the universities in the nation, which produce graduate teachers with Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) degree and Postgraduate Diploma in education for graduates of other disciplines who desire to become
professional teachers. There are also various institutes of education in universities that offer refresher and in-service training programs for teachers.
In these institutions, students are trained to form habits that will help them become capable teachers who will shoulder responsibilities, be initiative and be of good conduct worthy of emulation to their future pupils/students. The minimum standard lays emphasis on subject mastery and pedagogy. To be eligible for the award of NCE/B.Ed, a student must earn required units (usually 128) to graduate. These cover education courses, research projects, general studies, teaching practice and a double major or two teaching subjects (NCCE, 2002). Evaluation is by means of continuous assessment and an end of semester examination.
The teacher is expected to be a specialist in whatever subjects he/she is trained in, while the education courses are to prepare him/her for competent classroom work. According to Ukpo (2005), despite these arrangements, Nigeria still has a significant number of unqualified teachers. Universal access to education has been a prime target for Nigeria since the middle of the 1970s when the universal primary education (UPE) scheme was launched. Pupils enrolment burged on rapidly from 6.2 million in the 1975/76 session to 14.8 million in 1992 (Singla and Gupta, 2007). However, this brought in its wake a plethora of changes, some positive, others mostly problematic. The major one was a severe dearth of quality of teachers. Trainees were rushed through short-term, often ineffective training programmes predictably, the scheme collapsed.
An attempt to combat the problem of non and under-qualified teachers as earlier on mentioned, led to the establishment of the Teachers’ Registration Council in 1993 with the sole responsibility of determining the standards of knowledge and skill to be attained by person seeking to become registered as teachers (TRCN, 1993). Furthermore, its precepts include among others:
Compulsory registration of all professional teachers.
- Ø Make the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) the minimum requirement qualification of teachers.
- Ø Mandatory continuing professional education programme for in-service teachers.
These precepts above created a number of challenges for teacher education and in effect, basic education.
- Ø The recognition of NCE as the minimum employment requirement of teachers had resulted in the phase-out of the Grade II teachers training colleges to have the bulk of the nation’s
primary school teachers trained.
- Ø With the inception of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 2000, the demand for teachers arose astronomically. A pivotal teacher training programme was introduced as an interim
measure to meet the shortfall in teacher demands for the implementation of the UBE.
- Ø All teachers with certificates below the NCE were required to upgrade such certificate through-retraining programmes within a limited time. Some of the affected teachers made
efforts to upgrade their qualification to that of NCE, while a significant number (about 49%) still possessed qualifications below NCE as required by the law.
- Ø The NCE qualifies a teacher for professional work at the primary and junior secondary school levels of education. (TRCN 1993 p. 23).
To meet up with this challenge, the colleges of education were required to incorporate
English, mathematics and primary education studies as compulsory courses for pre-service NCE teachers. This was to make them effective all round teachers at the primary education level.
However, the general concern is the implication of TRCNs directive in ensuring quality basic education since the orientation of the curriculum content of the colleges of education is in
specialized training of specific subject areas. This is against the general all round “knowledge”
needed to teach in the primary schools. Therefore, providing the variety of general
knowledge/trainings and facilities needed for all the programmes has become a major barrier to
effective teacher training and consequently, for implementing the Basic Education Programme.
Since the establishment of Primary Education Studies Department in Colleges of
Education in Nigeria, there had been continuous changing of the minimum standard at one level
or the other. This is an attempt to encompass the needed knowledge that will qualify the would
be basic school teachers to be able to lay a good foundational education for the pupils, this study
examined effectiveness of the changed minimum standard on the job performance of the Primary
Education Studies educators even in their various schools of employment.
The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), was established by an Act
in 1989 as the third Leg of the tripod of excellence in the supervision of tertiary education in
Nigeria. Its mandate includes inter alia, the laying down of minimum standards for all
programmes of teacher education and accrediting certificates and other academic awards in the
colleges of education. Since its inception, the NCCE has been pursuing very doggedly the
commission’s goals of quality assurance (Egwu, 2008). In line with this, Aminu pointed out that:
In all your dealings with institutions, whether it be over funds, or accreditation or the establishment of new units or whatever, you should be fair but firm. This body cannot compromise on accountability, and poor quality in teacher education will be a national disaster which we must avoid by insisting on only the best. Humanitarian or political kindness to any institution or programme will eventually prove costly to the nation. (Aminu, 2008 p. 32).
The above account was part of the deliberation of series of workshops organized by
NCCE to produce a dynamic minimum standard that meets the aspirations of the society. In
practical terms, different stakeholders and organizations contributed towards the development of the new minimum standard in one way or the other in an attempt to minimize some deficiencies noted in the previous ones. These efforts have been made to ensure productive and efficient teachers for the basic education level of our education system. The essence of the changed minimum standards according to NCCE (2008) are:
- Ø Hoped to meet the Federal Ministry of Education’s attempt to produce the current minimum standards that will prepare the way for the production of specialist teachers
for basic education level.
- Ø To reveal the efforts of NCCE in responding to change and ensuring quality of NCE graduates through this revised minimum standards.
- Ø To ensure that revised minimum standards contribute in enhancing education and national development by producing qualified teachers for all schools (NCCE, 2008 p.
The origin of the NCE minimum standards in Nigeria dates back to the period before the establishment of National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) when some universities notably Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (ABU), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife (OAU) and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka through their instruments of affiliation catered for the academic standards and certification needs of the then Advanced Teachers Colleges. Although, these universities carried out the task creditably well through their institutes and faculties of education, there was no priority in standards and practices. Consequently, universities have confidence in products of affiliated teachers colleges and reflected same in their admission policies by giving preference to such NCE graduates over the graduates of non-affiliated colleges.
Hence, on its establishment as an agency to monitor and control quality among colleges of education; the first main task was to review and harmonize the minimum standards for the training of NCE teachers across the country. This initial task of the commission culminated into the production of the first edition of the harmonized NCE minimum standards in 1990. According to NCCE (2008), the commission has evolved a comprehensive curriculum process in response to both the changing needs in the education sector and the statutory periodic reviews to which the minimum standards are subjected every five years. This process entails the production of draft minimum standards arising out of broad-based stakeholders consultative activities and development as well as critique workshops where the initial drafts are thoroughly reviewed and refined before the final drafts are presented to the honourable Minister of Education for approval.
The minimum standards embody the highlights of the decisions of experts and stakeholders in the various disciplines that are offered in the colleges of education on what should be the context of the various NCE programmes. From the above aforementioned issues raised, this study therefore, sought to analyse the production of PES teachers for basic education level in Nigeria. From this point of view of the various changes carried out on PES minimum standard in Colleges of Education between 2009-2012 was focused upon. This is of great concern because primary education has always been regarded as the foundation on which other levels of education are built upon. Hence, the need to consider change in the quality of instructor’s minimum standard of teacher training institutions and the evaluation of the performance of the PES educators form the basis of concern in this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teacher Quality (TQ) is very important in the education process. However, there are many discrepancies in the teacher qualities and their use in the classroom. Still, there is little research about the role of TQ and their achievements in the educational process in Nigerian colleges of education. This situation needs to be examined in the perspective of Basic Education success or failures in this regard. (Oyenike, Adesoji, Adebayo, Onucha and Yakassai, 2009).
It is one thing to have a good plan on paper; it is another to see to the successful implementation of the plan. One becomes worried to see that curriculum plans take this shape. There is often disparity between policy pronouncements and policy implementations in Nigeria. The crux of the problem of basic education in Nigeria is the quality of teachers to implement the policy because innovations in education often take a lot of inputs and preparations before implementation. Adeshina (2004) pointed out that many innovations in education relied a lot on the preparedness of the teachers who are termed the curriculum implementers.
Also, Goldhaber and Brewer (1996) were of the view that it is common to see a wide gap between a revised curriculum and resources needed for the success of its implementation. The popular expectation is for the revised curriculum to have carefully considered the required resources in its implementation but the reverse is the case and this has constituted a problem in Nigeria education system. It has been observed that many lecturers in PES often securing employment on the basis that they will proceed on further training on their chosen discipline but as soon as they are employed, that is the end. Instead of having qualified and specialized PES teaching staff, the reverse is the case. It is not a hear say that absence and inadequate instructional materials have constituted a problem out of the numerous problems affecting the successful implementation of the minimum standards of Nigerian colleges of education
particularly in PES departments now a school. Also, the issue of unrealistic plans of action such as teacher-students ratio, unconducive classroom setting and infrastructure in the revised curriculum is another problem which is very obvious.
Change is inevitable for the growth and development of any establishment, family or society, such is the call for continuous changes in PES curriculum depicted by the minimum standard. Hence, this study shall analyse and evaluate on the changes in PES minimum standard between year 2009-2012 in terms of content, instructional materials, teaching facilities, teaching personnel, infrastructure, teacher student ratio, admission requirement and mode of teaching. It also examined the issue of teacher quality in the area of educational levels, professional training, year of teaching experience and year of graduation and how these have influenced their performances.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study thereby sought to:
- examine the extent of influence of the educational levels of PES educators on the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in Nigerian Colleges of Education (NCOE).
- ascertain the extent to which PES educators professional training affects their performance in implementing changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
- establish the influence of PES educators years of teaching experience on the implementation of the changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
- examine the degree of influence of PES educators’ area of specialization on the implementation of the changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
- determine the extent to which increase in course contents influence PES educators in the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
- ascertain the extent to which changes in minimum standards course contents have affected PES educators’ job satisfaction in NCOE.
- determine if changes in mode of teaching as mandated in the minimum standard have any influence on PES educators’ job performance in NCOE.
- find out if admission requirements have influence on PES educators’ implementation of the changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
- ascertain the adequacy and utilization of PES facilities needed to enhance the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
1.4 Research Questions
This dissertation attempts to provide answers to the following questions:
- Do the educational levels of PES educators have influence on the implementation of the changed PES minimum standards in NCOE?
- To what extent do PES educators’ professional training influence their job performance in the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE?
- What is the influence of PES educators’ years of teaching experience on the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE?
- What is the influence of PES Educators’ area of specialization on the implementation of the changed PES minimum standards in NCOE?
- To what extent does increase in course contents influence PES Educators in the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE?
- To what extent do changes in PES course contents influence PES educators’ job satisfaction in NCOE?
- To what extent do changes in mode of teaching influence PES educators’ job performance in NCOE?
- Does PES students’ admission requirement have any influence on PES educators’ implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE?
- Are there adequate and effective utilization of PES facilities needed for the implementation of changed PES course content in NCOE?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested in the course of this study.
Ho1: Educational levels of PES educators have no significant influence on the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
Ho2: PES educators’ professional training has no significant influence on their performance in the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
Ho3: PES educators’ years of teaching experience have no significant influence on the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
Ho4: PES educators’ area of specialization has no significant influence on the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
Ho5: Increase in course contents has no significant influence on PES educators’ implementation of changed minimum standards in NCOE.
Ho6: Changes in PES course content have no significant influence on PES educators’ job satisfaction in NCCE.
Ho7: Changes PES mode of teaching have no significant influence on job performance of PES educators in NCOE.
Ho8: PES students’ admission requirements have no significant influence on PES educator’s implementation of changed minimum standards in NCOE.
Ho9: Adequate and effective utilization of PES facilities needed have no significant influence on the implementation of changed PES minimum standards in NCOE.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study was conducted with the assumption that:
- It is not every PES educator that is qualified to teach in PES department.
- Basic Education especially lower (primary) will improve tremendously if it will be handled by teachers specially trained to do that.
- Teacher Quality (TQ) has a strong influence on academic achievement of students.
- There are no adequate facilities and infrastructures to implement the changed minimum standards.
- PES teaching staff job satisfaction and instructional delivery has been affected by the continuous changes in minimum standards.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Poor implementation of minimum standards also leads to poor realization of its core objectives thereby resulting in constant changes in minimum standard. In view of this, the study will contribute to existing knowledge in the following areas.
In most of the Nigerian colleges of education, there are number of unspecialized PES teaching staff earning government money in the name of salary at the end of the month; and yet destroying the future of young learners. This study will provide information for teachers and would be teachers on how to enhance competency in knowledge, attitude and skills with regard to basic education curriculum content. Furthermore, it will assist in determining adequacy and relevant use of instructional materials.
Also, this study will assist PES students to know the changing nature of PES as a course of study either in colleges of education or universities. This will be in terms of the varieties of curriculum contents, different pedagogical skills and evaluation procedures. Also, students are good users of the library, a copy of the study could serve as one of the reading materials which would provide necessary information on teachers quality. It would also serve as a reference point to readers in PES and other departments in Nigerian College of Education.
The essence of a research is to correct the situation on ground. In view of this fact, educational administrators and society in general have been complaining over the performance of PES students; consequently, the study of this nature will help to identify whether the cause was due to absence of PES specialized teaching staff or other factors and point to the way out. Furthermore, the study will provide an insight to administrators (provost, head of department and NCCE) on the need for recruitment of qualified and specialized PES teaching staff that would help students to perform very well in class test and be encouraged in studying harder.
The findings of this research will guide government in its book development policy. In this regard, the NERDC in collaboration with textbook writers and publishers shall enhance the quality of textbooks in line with changes in PES minimum standard. The study will guide the employers of PES educators on the need to motivate and make them aware of the challenges they
may encounter when implementing curriculum changes. They must also be assured that challenges are there to build them up and not to destroy them.
The findings of this study will also assist the employers of basic education teachers in getting competent, skilful and knowledgeable PES NCE holders that will catch the pupils young and lay a solid education foundation for them. Lastly, the outcome of this study will also benefit curriculum planners by making available to them the required information which could help in the review of NCE teacher education curriculum in the country. That is, it will expose the core area of teacher education (PES) as it has been and what needs to be done to help produce qualitative teachers.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study focused on influence of teacher quality and continuous changes in minimum standards of job performance of Primary Education Studies (PES) Educators in Nigerian Colleges of Education. The study strived to ensure the job satisfaction of PES Educators in Colleges of Education in order to prevent brain-drain in terms of PES specialist and to improve Nigeria standard of education by laying good educational foundation for basic school children. Hence the study covered all the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. PES teaching staff and PES students were covered by this study. It was delimited to PES teaching staff and PES students in Nigerian Colleges of Education; relevant documents that is, minimum standard, students’ academic performance records and records of facilities in teaching PES students were examined.