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INVESTIGATION OF STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS WEB-QUEST INSTRUCTION AMONG PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION KATSINA, KATSINA STATE
This study investigated the pre-service teachers‟ attitudes towards web-quest instruction in Colleges of Education Katsina state. Six research questions and four hypotheses were drawn to guide the study. A Survey research design was adopted to conduct the study. Related literaturewas reviewed after the conceptual framework based on the major variables of the study. The population of the study comprises of all the pre-service teachers‟ in Colleges of Education in Katsina State. 6,840 and a sample size of 364 pre-service teachers were used for the study; using cluster, simple random and proportional sampling techniques. A modified questionnaire tagged pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards web-quest instruction for learning geography concept and their self-efficacy toward the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept was used for data collection. It was designed under three different sections and harmonized in one single questionnaire. The content validity of the instrument was ascertained, and copies of the questionnaires were pilot tested in UsufuBalaUsman College of Legal and advanced studies Daura to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The reliability coefficient of 0.92 for section B and 0.88 for section C was obtained at 0.05 level of significant. The percentage was used to interpret the demographic data of the study. Data collected on the basis of the research questions set in chapter one were analyzed using descriptive statistics (i.e. frequency, percentage, and mean). The limit for decision rule: An average mean of 2.50 and above was considered as agreed, while an average mean of 2.49 and below was considered disagreed with respect to research questions. Mann-WhitneyIndependent test is used to answer hypotheses one and three while Kruskal-Wallis test is used to answer hypotheses two and three. The null hypotheses one and three were rejected and null hypotheses two and four were accepted. The findings of this study revealed that age has no significant influence in the pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards web-quest instruction for learning geography concept and also gender has a significant influence on the pre-service teachers‟ attitude toward web-quest instruction for learning geography concept. This study recommends, among others, that the Government, National Commission forColleges of Education and the management of Colleges of Education should join hands together and ensure that computer laboratories are available in COE with adequate functional computer hardware and software and functional internet facilities that will cater for the need of both staff and students.
1.1 Background to the Study
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become key tools and have a revolutionary impact on how people see and live in the world. The place of ICTs in education and the world, in general, cannot be ignored. Modern day businesses are conducted and facilitated through the use of telephones, fax machines, and computer communication networks through the internet. This phenomenon has given birth to the contemporary e-commerce, e-government, e-medicine, e-banking, and e-education among others. Bandele (2006) summed up that ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, internet, and other telecommunication technology in every aspect of human endeavor. He posited that ICT is simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as the super highway through which information is transmitted and shared by people all over the world.
Web-Quests have become an effective method of incorporating technology with educational concepts. In an interview, Dodge stated his intention for creating a Web-Quest sparked from an interest in allowing his students to further connect with his in-class lesson (Starr, 2000). Using his knowledge of educational technology, Dodge was able to gather information and resources online to support his lesson plans. His creation of a student-centered activity had the ability to integrate online resources with activity-based learning (Dodge, 1995). The development of higher-order thinking skills with content-based learning in the Web-Quest format may prove to be successful, but further research is needed in this area. March (2000), one of the co-developers, states that Web-Quests “allow students to construct meaning on a complex topic, preferably in a way that motivates working together and testing ideas in a real-world
context” (2000, p.55). March has been another major proponent of Web-Quests in education and has contributed to the understanding of their use. His research addresses basic uses of Web-Quests in scaffolding, prompting, and procedural facilitation with various content areas.
Teachers also have the option of developing Web-Quest activities with Fila mentality, a less invasive process requiring less instruction. Through appropriate planning and development, teachers are learning how to effectively implement lessons that facilitate inquiry-based learning ( Tom 2000; Lipscomb, 2003; Peterson, Caverly, & MacDonald, 2003; Starr, 2000a). This structured format shifts the focus to student-centered learning through instructor-facilitated instruction and guidance.
Successful implementation of Web-Quests, particularly in geography education, lends credibility to the simplicity of the concept – increasing student learning through active experimentation. This implementation of Web-Quests in various other fields of study continues to make a major impact on the instructional strategies employed by faculty (Seamon, 2001; Lipscomb, 2003; Peterson, 2003). In addition, the concept of Internet discovery has improved the ability of the student to construct his/her own learning through Web-Quest activities (Seamon, 2001). Essential in this process of discovery is the instructor‟s ability to create effective navigation through a web page storyboard. In this process, the instructor is able to create a flowchart to identify the natural progression a student will follow through a Web-Quest project. Ease of navigation is one of the most central concepts that must be implemented in order to facilitate online learning (Seamon, 2001). In this process, an instructor must guide a student through the question, search, interpretation, composition, and sharing to take the online information and synthesize a meaningful output. This discovery method promotes ownership of the student‟s learning and Seamon suggests incorporating a writing activity upon completion of
the Web-Quest to allow students the opportunity to reflect on their findings. Lipscomb (2003, p152), this activity is “gaining popularity with teachers and students for its ability to interact with online resources” and connect it to writing activities. Scott (2000) also discusses similar findings of connecting with the material through research, synthesizing, and information writing. This is particularly important in connecting with the material in education. As Lipscomb (2003), states students will “develop more meaningful ideas of the past if it is personalized,” and this concept is highly relevant for historical events (154).
Web-Quests continue to be a successful method of allowing the student to connect with material through online resources. The primary concern, as an instructor, regards setting up a problem or task for the student to accomplish. Setting up a task also requires adequate prompting to ensure that the student investigates the correct online references. Currently, much of the research published on Web-Quests describes methods of implementing this tool into classroom instruction. Although instructors have developed most Web-Quests, some research has revealed that student-developed Web-Quests are also being implemented in classes (Peterson, 2003). This method of student-centered instruction relies on the technological ability of the students and the instructor in order to create an effective outcome and remains in the infancy of Web-Quest implementation.
Using Web-Quests in education with pre-service and in-service teachers may yield similar results to King‟s study with the MUTEBI instrument. Future analysis of Web-Quest effectiveness may include additional evaluations of the product with the student‟s ability to integrate the activity into a classroom setting. An assessment of the Web-Quest produced by pre-service and in-service teachers combined with additional evaluation with the course implementation may yield the most statistically significant results.
Student attitudes toward Web-quest influence the future use of computers in instruction (Sanders and Morrison-shetler, 2001). This issue encourages many researchers to assess students‟ overall attitude toward web-quest instruction. Variables such as gender, age, and prior computer experience were found to influence student‟s attitude toward web-quest instruction (Hill, 2000; Price and Winiecki, 1995; Smith and Necessary, 1996; Moon, 1994). Attitudes of students toward web-quest instruction have influence over the future use of web-launched instructional materials. They, also determine the extent to which web-based resources are educationally beneficial for students in classroom learning environment (Sanders & Morrison-shetler, 2001). Some studies (e.g. Bangert, 2004; Foster, 2003; Hill, 2000), have concluded that one important indicator of future web use is providing useful information appropriate to the course being thought. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between instructors of web-quest training materials and students‟ participation in the use of web-based recourses, consequently influencing student learning through the web.
Self-Efficacy (SE) is the belief or perception of a person that he or she is capable to perform a specific task. It is a dynamic element that influences other concepts such as goals, performance and is influenced by them. SE is an essential element in Social Cognitive Learning Theory. it plays a role in connecting goals, performance, and motivation concepts especially in the areas of e-learning and instruction. it is one of the individual related concepts that function as a mediating mechanism among these concepts. Various research results show that SE may be a good predictor of performance. Since SE may be a good predator of performance, managers may try to assess the SE of candidates to predict their potential performance in the area of e-learning and instruction, thus regulating their human resources practices such as selection, adjustment, manager development etc.
Gender and age difference in the attitude toward technology use has long been a concern in education. The last meta-analysis on this issue covered the empirical studies up to about 20 years ago. Since then, technology use has increased exponentially, and many more empirical studies have examined this issue but showed inconsistent findings. As a result, there is a lack of clear understanding about if such gender and age difference still persists. The purpose of this research is to re-examine this issue by meta-analyzing the empirical research studies on this issue in the last two decades and to examine the potential moderators that may have contributed to the heterogeneity of the research findings. A total of 50 articles from 1997 to 2014 were identified and used in this meta-analysis. The findings indicated that males still hold more favorable attitudes toward technology use than females, but such differences would be characterized as small effect sizes. The comparison between this study and the last meta-analysis of about two decades ago suggested that there was an only minimal reduction in the gender and age attitudinal gap in general. But when the general attitude was broken down to different dimensions of attitude, the present study showed a reduction of gender difference in the dimension of Affect and Self-efficacy, but not in the dimension of Belief. The limitations of the study were noted, and the implications and future research directions were discussed.
The emergence of the World Wide Web as a pipeline for learning will have a profound effect on the manner in which our students learn and we teach. As Koone (2000) states; “from web-based technology are converging in rapid and radical ways. Specifically, web-quest instruction (WQI) can be used to meet the needs of a more diverse student group. Typical classes consist of students with varying abilities and previous knowledge, and web-quest instruction (WQI) can help a student to address these differences. Web-quest instruction (WQI) also allows students to work a pace that is more comfortable - some students work faster than their peers
while others may wish to take longer. In addition, the use of web-quest instruction (WQI) provides the opportunity for multiple grade levels to be accommodated in the same classroom at the same time, also an added bonus of Web-quest Instruction is the fact that it can offer students a "virtual teacher" because students can access the instructional materials anytime, anywhere. This allows students who were absent the opportunity to access instructional materials away from school, and even the possibility to accommodate students in a course when their schedule is full. This study, therefore, investigates pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards web-quest instruction among pre-service teachers in colleges of education Katsina state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is evident that many pre-service teachers in Colleges of Education in Nigeria still rely much on the traditional lecture method of teaching neglecting the intrinsic value of the use of ICT. There is still low level of enlightenment among pre-service teachers on access and utilization of the emerging trends of ICT for the better Educational enterprise. A large number of pre-service teachers rarely access and utilize the tremendous intrinsic value of ICT in discharging their responsibilities as teachers. It has been observed that their inadequate computers as well as internet facilities in use in most of the colleges of education in Nigeria. In that sense, the traditional lecture method persistently dominates most of the teaching and learning activities. This clearly shows that pre-service teachers are still left behind from the emerging trends of ICT. Therefore, teachers and students are too large extent deprived of exploiting the potentials offered by ICTs in teaching-learning process for better achievement of the Educational goals.
It is high time to replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still underpin the educational system in this country, hence the call for the application of web-quest in the
education system. Besides, many Nigerian teachers and students‟ have been unable to find effective ways to utilize web-quest application in their instruction and learning. The possible explanation for this lack of success by teachers is not only that the utilization of web-quest instruction in the classroom has not been encouraging and teachers are not trained in using web-quest application in teaching as a means for educational sustainability, but the level of the teachers‟ self-efficacy and computer skills to the use of web-quest application has been very minimal.
Attitude has been found to be a barrier toward web-quest instruction among pre-service teachers in colleges of education Katsina State because most of the pre-service teachers in those institutions are not exposed to the use of the web-quest application by their lecturers that is why most of the pre-service teachers‟ shows a negative attitude toward it. This study, therefore, was carried out to investigate the student‟s attitude toward web-quest instruction among pre-service teachers in colleges of education Katsina, Katsina state after they have been exposed to web-quest application package of geography concept.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study seeks to investigate the students‟ attitude towards web-quest instruction among pre-service teachers in colleges of education Katsina state. Specifically, the study will investigate:
- the attitude of pre-service teachers towards the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept.
- the pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest for learning geography concept
- the difference between male and female pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards web-quest instruction for learning geography concepts.
- the influence of age on pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concepts.
- the difference between male and female pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concepts.
- the influence of age on pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- what is the attitude of pre-service teachers towards the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept?
- what is the pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest for learning geography concept?
- what is the difference between male and female pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards web-quest instruction for learning geography concepts?
- what is the influence of age on pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concepts?
- What is the difference between male and female pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concepts?
- What is the influence of age on pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept?
The following null hypothesis was formulated and will be tested at 0.05 levels of significance:
- there is no significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept.
- there is no significant difference in the pre-service teachers‟ attitude towards the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept based on the age difference.
- there is no significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept.
- there is no significant difference in the pre-service teachers‟ self-efficacy on web-quest instruction for learning geography concept based on age difference.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that:
- Pre-service teachers are familiar with the use of web-quest application for learning geography concept.
- Male and female pre-service teachers‟ attitude could be determined after exposes to web-quest instructional package on geography concept.
- Pre-service teachers in the same class have age difference which might influence their attitude.
- Pre-service teachers in the same level may differ in the level of self-efficacy possesses which may influence their attitude toward the use of web-quest instruction for learning geography concept.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant to pre-service teachers, lecturers, colleges of education management, National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), and many others. It is hoped that this study has potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen basic skills in teaching and learning some concept of geography. Web-quest could help pre-service teachers in motivating and encouraging their learning, as they are encouraged to be more independent and responsible for their own learning. Most importantly, this study provide basic understanding of Web-quest instruction in education and strengthens teaching and learning, providing powerful resources and services for students, thereby enabling them to meet their individual needs. Thus teachers and students are more connected to each other.
This study serve as a useful document and also of great benefits to National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), the body responsible for teacher training in Nigeria with the detailed information about the perception of students towards Web-quest Instruction. This help students and lecturers to understand the importance of Web-quest Instruction by incorporating it into their curriculum. The study will contribute to current literatures and other researches, embarked on similar field of research on the aspect of Web-quest Instruction utilization.
The study will serve as a resource material for institutions of learning that have yet to employ web-quest technology for instructional delivery. This means that essentially, the findings will provide information on utilization of web-quest instruction as well as recommendation on how to effectively address some factors that militate against the use of web-quest instruction and also provide detail information to the pre-service teachers of Colleges of Education about the usage of web-quest instruction.
The study will have revealed to the lecturers and students by highlighting the important features of web-quest instruction technology in the area of effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning. With web-quest instruction technology, the students will be able to listen to previous lectures delivered many times because the tool is capable of saving and previewing delivered lectures. On the part of the lecturers, it helps in time management and easy retrieval of information during lecture presentation. The study reveal the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning with the web-quest instruction to the students, stakeholders, educational planners and the society at large.
In the same vein, the findings of the study help to enlighten the students more on the significant of Web-quest instruction. It is anticipated that the research results would give colleges‟ administrators valuable insight into the efficiency of Web-quest Instruction, identify the areas of strengths and weaknesses, needs of the lecturers and students, evaluation of the services being offered, as well as area(s) that needs improvement. It is expected that those who are concerned with ICTs programmed like the Ministry of Communication and Technology, National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) may use the findings from this study to speed up campaign on the use of Web-quest in instructional Praxis. This might be done through stakeholders‟ interactive session and comments, seminars and conducting capacity building activities for teachers. The Findings from this study might also benefit researchers by adding to the pool of information that already exists in this area. Researchers can therefore fall back on information gathered here by replicating this study in another setting.
It is also hoped that this study bring new ideas and practical action among all stakeholders in both the policy realm and in higher education research environment. The recommendations
arising from the findings will guide the NCCE management in setting priority for strategic planning in the area of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs).
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study covered two Colleges of Education in Katsina state. The Colleges include Federal College of Education Katsina state, and Isa Kieta College of Education Dutsinma. This study was also centered on students‟ attitude toward the use of web-quest instruction among pre-service teachers‟ in Colleges of Education Katsina state. In addition, the study was focused on web-quest instruction use on geography concept. It specifically, covered transportation, rocks, and settlement.