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PERCEPTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS ON THE IMPACT OF FUNDING ON THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
The adage that says “if education is expensive, try ignorance” is not a mere saying but an axiom of life. Penny wise, pound foolish. It is the wisdom drawn from this adage that has made the various governments to give priority to funding of education in Nigeria. In spite of the compendium of sums been allocated to education, the education system is bedeviled by a lot of financial inadequacies. This study assessed the Impact of Funding on Management of Secondary Schools in Nigeria. This is with the view to identifying and correcting the lapses and inadequacies in the area of funding secondary education in Nigeria. research questions and 9 hypotheses were raised. Related literature was reviewed in the area of funding and management in secondary schools. The survey method was used in the study with a population of 18,238 Principals, 7,065 Ministry of Education Officials and a total of 270,650 teachers. This represent a total of 295,944 respondents. The random sampling was adopted to give every State and respondents a chance of been selected. The sample sizes comprised 65 education officials, 13,360 Principals and 910 teachers, giving a total of 1,105 sampled respondents for the study. Here 10% Krejcie and Morgans (2004) Table was used in determining the sample size of the population while 30% of the states were used as sample size as recommended by Roscoe (1969) in Aderoumu (1985). A structured questionnaire was the instrument used. Similarly, the analysis and interpretation of data led to rejection of 3 hypotheses and the acceptance and retention of 6 hypotheses, that were stated in null form, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical test of 0.05 significant level set for the study. To ascertain the ANOVA test, the Scheffe Post-Hoc multiple comparison test was employed, which confirm the test. The findings revealed that funding of secondary schools is inadequate in all critical areas of management. Some of the recommendations include 26% budgetary allocation to education, Principals to effectively tap other sources of funding.
1.1 Background to the Study
The changing nature of the society in which the education system exists, is saddled with strong competition with the various sectors of public life. This is so because education today is accepted as an instrument per excellence. It is the live wire that gingers the machinery of scientific and technological development. Education is also a hallmark of incorporating and transmitting man‟s improved ideology, culture and traditions, towards shaping man‟s mind to develop his human resources and potentials for harnessing his environmental resources.
The indispensable role of education in nation building and intellectual development therefore, suggests the need for adequate participation in management, control and funding at all levels by its citizens and government. This is further emphasized in Article 26 of the United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Declaration stated in very clear terms the right to education, so that citizens can become useful to themselves and to the society at large.
Today education is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world. This is so, because education has attracted some significant amount of human, financial and material resources (man, material and money), on the part of governments, organizations and individuals. It is in view of this that a prominent African pedagogue, Moumoun (1980:242) is quoted as saying:-
The goal of education is to continue to raise the culture, technical and scientific level of the people and train the greatest number of specialized cadres with high
qualifications, in order to have an uninterrupted expansion of production in all fields and construct the society.
Marshall (1990) stated that world leaders at various levels have expressed the
importance of education. Brezhnev to her citizens, the late Soviet Head of State in an
address to teachers in 1968, expressed that the greatest achievement of their country
was educating the people. Furthermore, Marshall (1990:216) emphasized the
importance of education as a national investment and the most valuable of all capital
investments in human beings. The need for human resource development as a process
of increasing the knowledge, skills and capacities of all people in a society is always
stressed by economists. The goals of modern society are political, cultural as well as
economic. Human resource management is a necessary condition for achieving all of
Curle (1992:100) opined that countries are underdeveloped because most of
their people are underdeveloped, having no opportunities of expanding their potentials
and capacities through education in the service of the society. Also Herbison (1984:14)
further asserted that
A nation and its potential for economic, political and cultural growth stem from the power to develop and effectively utilize the innate capacities of its people. Human resources management therefore may be more realistic and reliable indicators of modernization and development than any other single measure.
In Nigeria, right from the colonial era the importance of education for
development of the human resources in order to effectively harness the country‟s
wealth and potentials has been stressed. Even after independence, education has continued to occupy a priority status in our national developmental plans.
According to Famade (2009) the Nigerian educational system has expanded tremendously within the last three decades. This is manifested in the number and size of schools. Likewise financial resources allocation to education seems to be on the increase. The priority attention accorded education may be based on the view that government adopts the social demand approach in the provision of education to the citizenry. However financial resources available to government have failed to cope with the growth in education and the demand of the various competing ends. This could be linked to the economic depression of the early 1980‟s. The increasing evidence of financial constraints faced by government has resulted in the decline of funding education adequately. The present insufficient funds and the escalating cost of funding the education sector, has placed government in a dilemma. This has raised a lot of concern to stakeholders and Nigerian citizen especially on the funding of public secondary schools, the educational system in the public secondary schools has for sometime now become a source of concern to Nigerians. The concern is focused on the declining quality of education. The rate of the decline is alarming and embarrassing; various factors have been attributed to this rapid decline. Some social critics, educationists and stakeholders indentify the major cause as inadequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria, while Government on the other hand is claiming that it is funding secondary education adequately based on the resources available but interpret the problem to be as a result of poor management of the funds.
As asserted by Gidado (2000), that inadequate funding has resulted in improper planning and implementation of educational, policies and decisions in secondary schools. Also the dearth, decay and the sordid state of infrastructure is another evidence of inadequate funding. Similarly, staff motivation, retention and development is also affected by poor funding as seen in poor remunerations. Teachers and principals are not sent on refresher courses, seminars, workshops, conferences and in-service training to update and increase their technical know-how. Furthermore the problems of inadequate teaching and learning materials in our secondary schools are another indicator of poor funding.
Similarly Nnole and Sulaiman (2000) asserted that a new dimension is rearing its ugly head in our secondary school which is also tied to inadequate funding. This includes the decline in the reading culture by students due largely to absence of libraries, high cost of books, widespread examination malpractices, opening of passing centres in order to exploit the unsuspecting students, cultism and secret societies among students which divert their attention away from academic work, the incessant strikes by secondary school teachers due to non-payment of salaries and allowances and finally, inadequate job opportunity and few admission vacancies for secondary school leavers into tertiary institutions.
The scenario described above coupled with the increase in enrolment and explosion of students population due to the introduction of Universal Primary Education (U.P.E.) and Universal Basic Education (U.B.E.), without the corresponding increase in fund allocation to secondary schools will definitely lead to decline in the quality of education.
To achieve educational goals of secondary schools, adequate funding has become imperative. Adequate funding is needed in the area of students‟ academic, welfare and extra-curricular activities. This includes academic and vocational training, students assessment, library services, students‟ accommodation and classrooms, health services, clubs and games. These services will facilitate increase in student performance and quality, thereby reducing the prevalent rate of examination malpractices, cultism and school dropouts.
Increase in student enrolment also means the need for employment of more teachers. Government should provide funds to employ, train and retrain teachers, by organizing orientation programmes for newly employed teachers. For the old and experienced teachers, funds are needed to help them develop further skills through organization of workshops, seminars, conferences and in-service training. Funds should also be provided to motivate teachers in order to put in their best; salaries should be paid promptly and regularly. Similarly, funds should be set aside for teachers‟ accommodation, health services and recreational facilities.
Another area of school management that needs adequate funding is the provision of infrastructure and learning facilities. However, the challenges of funding in these area cannot be over-emphasized, due to poor and dearth of infrastructural and learning facilities, as vividly seen in our secondary schools. Government should increase funding in the area of building and maintenance of classrooms, school furniture, libraries, laboratories, workshops and equipment. Similarly, funds should be provided for provision of teaching aids like audio visual aids, graphics, books, chalk and other consumables.
The judicious use and utilization of these scarce resources by school
management in the day to day running of the school becomes imperative. Funds are
needed to implement government policies and decisions. The implementation of the
National Policy on Education (NPE) 6-3-3-4 was a big challenge to our education
system. The 6-3-3-4 system which was introduced in 1982, is seen as a lofty idea, the
best thing that has ever happened to our educational system. If properly implemented,
it would transform the Nigeria education system.
However, the President along with others reasoned that the National Policy on
Education (NPE) has failed. Recently, during the National Education Summit held on
Monday 4th October 2010, The Nation Newspaper of Tuesday 5th October 2010 cited the
President of Nigeria thus:
The 6-3-3-4 system has failed, says Jonathan. It has failed so the proponents should apologize to Nigerians. The system lacks consistency and other short comings. The problem lies with poor implementation.
To the researcher as a educationist, has the 6-3-3-4 system actually failed? Do
the problems lie with the implementation alone? The Minister of Education, Prof.
Ruquayat Rufa‟i responded during the same summit and reasoned that:
…expansion in the educational system has not been by a similar degree with resources allocation. The declining financial allocation to the system and insufficient management of these resources by ministries had led to the present adverse consequences on the quality of our education.
The researcher tend to agree with the submission of the Honorable Minister of
Education than that of the President that the failure does not hinge only on poor
implementation, but the real issue is that of inadequate funding. Every aspect of the 6-3-3-4 system require proper funding to implement especially the first 3 years in particular, requires more funding because it provides a broad based education after which a student will finally decide which vocation he will pursue to further his education. Funding is required in implementing the curriculum, communications, coordinating, supervising and evaluation of the policy by school management. If secondary education is properly funded it will lead to achievement of educational goals.
However, Ogunsanju (2005) argued that, it is not only provision of funds, infrastructure, staff remuneration and so on that can restore sanity expected in secondary schools. He went further to say that the solution to the problem of secondary education is effective management practice of the resources available in the secondary schools. Therefore good management practices like planning, organizing, influencing, controlling, good decision-making processes and communication between human, material and financial resources will, to an extend actualized the achievement of educational goals in secondary schools. But there is widespread criticism and loss of confidence by the general public on how school managers manage these resources.
The principal is the person responsible for managing these resources at his disposal. If managed effectively these resources will definitely achieve educational goals. The tasks of the Principal include directing and organizing the teachers and students in an environment conducive to the maximum development of the learners. No wonder Adesina and Ogunsanya (1984) stated that principalship should not only be for every teacher, who has the requisite academic qualification, but rather it should be for those who in addition to the necessary academic and professional qualifications,
should have also the essential qualities of been tactful, patient, imaginative, creative, responsible, dependable, initiative and rational in judgment.
Dele (2000) observed that, there are allegations that many Principals do not devote time and effort in performing their primary responsibilities of directing, planning, controlling, leading, organizing and supervising school activities, but in most cases sit in the office receiving visitors, collecting school fees and visiting Area Offices. This results in wastage in the management of these resources.
Similarly, suffice to say that the poor performance of secondary school students in internal and external examinations, the quality of teachers based on motivation, retention, staff development programmes and performance which is low. So also, the inadequate and poorly maintained classrooms, followed by dearth in schools infrastructure, one is forced to ask the question, Does the huge funds allocated yearly to education, have some positive impact on the management of secondary schools or could it be that the management of these resources cannot be fully realized?
The contention in this study is that if secondary education is adequately funded by government and the funds allocated are effectively managed by the school managers, the realities on ground could have been quite better than what meets the eyes. Thus the thrust of this thesis is to undertake an in-depth investigation on the perception of stakeholders on the inpact of funding on management of public secondary schools. The researcherl attempted to see if resources allocated to secondary education were adequate and if they were expended wisely and more equitably, and whether the management strategies adopted in managing these resources were
adequate, and if better management strategies could be adopted and also if alternative means of funding outside government allocations could be the solution.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of secondary education in the development of human resources in order to effectively harness the country‟s wealth and potential cannot be overemphasized. Secondary education occupies an importance place in the Nigeria education system. It is the link between primary and tertiary education and also a means of producing semi-skilled and sub-professional manpower. This is why secondary education has continued to occupy a priority status in Nigeria.
Fafunwa (1994) contended that since the establishment of the first government owned secondary school, the Kings College Lagos in 1909, government owned secondary schools have for long been in the forefront in the provision of good, sound and quality education. The government secondary schools were adequately funded, managed and controlled by government. The public secondary schools then had the best facilities, such as classrooms, libraries, science laboratories, sports equipment and hostels. The secondary schools were better staffed, teachers were well motivated, and in fact the community looked up to teachers for leadership, discipline and respect. The teacher was seen as an epitome of the society. No wonder it was assumed that teachers‟ “reward was in heaven.”
Immediately after Nigeria‟s independence in 1960 the various regional governments followed by the newly created states, addressed the issue of education by establishing more secondary schools as reasoned by Fauna (1974). This marked the turning point in the standard and quality of secondary education. According to Taiwan
(1989) most of the secondary schools were established to satisfy political agitations, rather than maintaining standards and quality as the issues of proper funding was not taken into consideration. To worsen the educational situation, in the 1970‟s many of the state governments took over secondary schools from missionaries and communities. The missionary schools were regarded as having high standard and academic achievement. This take- over as reasoned by Taiwan has greatly increased government
burden on management, control and funding of secondary education. The consequence of this policy marked the beginning of the steady decline in the standard and quality of our secondary education. The last straw that broke the camel‟s back was the introduction of the Universal Primary Education (U.P.E.) in 1976, followed by political declaration by many state Governments that secondary education was free.
The introduction of the Universal Primary Education (U.P.E.) and the seemingly opening of the doors of our secondary schools as free enterprises, coupled with the introduction of the new system of education 6-3-3-4 which needed adequate funding came along with compendium of challenges. The challenges and problems came in the area of planning, implementation and interpretation of the policy, provision and availability of schools infrastructure, learning facilities, teacher‟s motivation, retention, welfare and staff development, communication and student enrolment and expansion.
As Andesine (1982) affirmed that hence, with increase in school enrolment without expansion in educational facilities, the phenomenon of large schools and overcrowded classroom have become apparent in the secondary schools in Nigeria, also the teachers who are to teach are few and not motivated. Of all the multifarious problems facing public secondary education in Nigeria today, none is as persistent and virulent as the
one relating to provision of sufficient funds for proper management and achievement of secondary education goals.
It is a truism, according to Agenda (1984) that, money is needed to attract, retain and develop secondary school teachers, to put up new school buildings and maintain the existing ones, procure equipment and other learning materials for effective functioning of the schools. Contributing to the importance of funds to the management of secondary schools system, Mesas (1982) argued that:
For schools to function effectively, sufficient funds
Is needed to buy textbooks, build and maintain buildings, Pay teachers‟ salaries buy science equipment and learning Materials, maintain other services that are required by a School to carry out its functions effectively.
In his contribution, Ozigi (1978) affirmed that “No organization can survive or carry out its function effectively without adequate financial resources at its disposal.”
In the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria funding of secondary education falls under the responsibility of the states and federal government. Based on budgetary allocation to education, compares with other sectors, allocation to education in most states come first and federal allocation to education is always next to defence. Apart from budgetary allocation, government also fund education through alternative sources like the first line charge from the consolidated account for funding UBE and Profit after tax e.g. ETF and PTDF, similarly through Surep, Millennium Development Goal, (MDG‟s) and Social Development Programme (SDP). So also, other sources of funding secondary education include funds from the students, parents, NGOs and International donors. As a stakeholder, one feels that there is a deliberate efforts by government in funding secondary school. But if you visit the secondary schools, you
are confronted with dilapidated infrastructures, non functioning teaching and learning facilities, dearth and few unmotivated and qualified teachers, therefore something is fundamentally wrong comparing government efforts in funding education and the facilities in the secondary schools, so stakeholders are bound to start asking may questions. These huge budgetary allocations and other sources of funding are they actually approved? If they are approved, are they actually released? If they are released, are they actually adequate? If they are adequate, could it be the management practices by the school management is the problem? Actually, inadequate funding affects the provision of the following services:
The physical and spatial infrastructure which enhance teaching and learning in the context of secondary schools are classrooms, laboratories, libraries, furniture, technical workshops, offices, staff quarters and indeed the entire school. These infrastructure and learning facilities are inadequate or poorly maintained due largely to poor funding of our secondary schools leading to not achieving the goals of teaching and learning by producing poor graduates. Even when these infrastructures and facilities are available, the lack of commitment of our educational managers, teachers and students in handling and safeguarding these facilities terming them as “government property”. The government finds it difficult to provide funds to maintain these facilities and the school management cannot maintain them, due to their non-challant attitudes and inadequate funds, leading to dearth and poorly maintained infrastructure and facilities.
The issue of brain drain is very prevalent in our secondary schools today. Most people use the teaching profession as a stepping stone to greener pasture. Well
trained and qualified school managers and teachers, immediately leave the class when a better opportunity for exit exists, leaving poorly trained, non-qualified and unmotivated teachers and weak leadership in the schools. This problem is tied to inadequate funding of secondary schools, Teachers‟ salaries are not paid as and at when due. Funds are not provided for staff development and motivation like provision of health services, accommodation, in-service training, workshops and seminars, therefore teachers‟ retention is low. This makes teachers to leave when ever there are little opportunities.
The over blown explosion and increase enrolment in our secondary schools, has made it difficult in funding and managing of students academic and welfare services. The little funds available cannot provide for effective activities of students like games, classroom assessment, health services and accommodation. The explosion in student population require adequate funding to recruit and train teachers, build more classrooms and procure more classroom equipment, but the funds are not available to provide these facilities even if the facilities are available they are not adequate or properly managed.
It is evidently clear from the above that the secondary schools are confronted with dearth and inadequate infrastructure, inappropriate qualified and motivated staff and gross deficit in learning facilities and allied resources (Gidado 2000). Equally critical are problems of non-availability of funds to ensure the day to day effective operations of the schools.
The implication is poor production of graduate students from our secondary schools, who cannot read and write, poor SSCE (WAEC and NECO) results, constant
examination malpractice in both internal and external examinations. Opening of passing centers to teach students how to cheat. Most Universities have no alternative but to conduct post UME Exams, because they no longer trust the examination results of these students nor examination bodies like JAMB, WAEC and NECO.
This unwelcome trend motivated the researcher to find out from stakeholders their perceptions on the impact of funding on management of public secondary schools. The researcher wants to find out if public secondary schools are properly funded. The researcher also wants to find out if funds available to secondary education are not properly managed by school managers for effective attainment of secondary schools goals. Thus this study examined the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on management of public secondary schools in the following critical areas of management in secondary schools, (i) General and daily management practices in secondary schools (ii) Policy Planning, implementation and decision making processes
(iii) Staff motivation and retention, (iv) Effective Communication (v) Teacher‟s quality and staff development (vi) Provision of instructional and learning facilities, (vii) Provision infrastructural facilities (viii) Students academic and welfare services, (ix) Other sources of funding outside government funding. Similarly it will try to proffer solutions and suggestions on better management strategies and alternative sources of funding.
1.3Objectives of the Study:
The study is expected to achieve the following objectives; To
- ascertain the perceptions of stakeholders on the Impact of funding on general
and daily management practice in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- examine the perception of stakeholders on the impact of funding on policy, planning and implementation of decisions in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- assess the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on staff motivation and retention in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- find out the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on effective communication in and out of secondary schools in Nigeria.
- investigate the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on teacher quality and staff development in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- ascertain the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on the provision of instructional and learning facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- examine the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on provision of infrastructural facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- investigate the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on students academic activities and welfare services in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- find out the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of other sources of funding on the management of secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
For this, it is therefore necessary for the researcher to address these problems by asking the following questions:
- How does funding have impact on general and daily management practices in the secondary schools in Nigeria?
- How does funding have impact on planning and implementation of decisions in
- Does government funding have any impact on staff motivation and retention in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What impact does government funding have on communication management in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What impact does government funding have on teachers‟ quality and staff development in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What impact does government funding have on provision of instructional materials and other consumables in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- How effective does funding have impact on infrastructural development in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- Does government funding have any impact on student academic activities and welfare services in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- How effective are other sources of funding outside government funding, a necessary factor to improve funding in secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on general and daily management practices in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on planning and implementation of educational policies and programmes in secondary school in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact funding on teachers motivation and retention in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on communication in and out of secondary schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on teacher‟s salaries, welfare and staff development.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on provision of instructional materials and other consumables in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on infrastructural development in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on students academic activities and welfare services in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the perceptions of stakeholders on the
impact of other sources of funding outside government funding on the management of secondary school in Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study hereby assumes that:-
- general and daily management practices are properly funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Policy Planning and Implementation of Decision are adequately funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- staff motivation and retention programmes are adequately funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- provision of communication gadgets and activities are properly funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- teacher‟s quality and staff development programmers‟ are properly funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- provision of teaching and learning facilities are adequately funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- provision of infrastructural facilities and maintenance are properly funded by government.
- student‟s academic activities and welfare services are properly funded by government in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- other sources of funding outside government funding are a necessary factor for management of secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.7Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it will enable government to realize that achievement of educational goals depends to a large extent on adequate financial support through the provision of teaching and learning materials, infrastructural development, communication, decision making, staff motivation and retention, staff quality and development and student academic welfare service.
In addition, the study is significant because, it will make the educational administrators and all citizens realize how government prioritizes allocation to education compared with other sector. It will create awareness on how funds are approved and how the budget is released accordingly. The stages of implementation and management of resources in secondary schools.
The study is significant to principals and teachers because it would make them realize that resources available to education were limited and scarce due to competing demands by other sectors. Therefore, there is the need for proper management of these financial resources and also cost saving devices would be a necessary factor in the secondary schools in Nigeria.
More so, through this study, government is made to be aware of the fact that due to inadequate funding of secondary education compared with other sectors of education, facilities in term of libraries, laboratories, staff accommodation, games equipment, furniture, instructional facilities and a host of others are lacking in the secondary schools, and therefore recommend how government could improve funding and also source for alternative funding.
Similarly, the study is intended for both teachers and students to be more aware of the limited financial resources available to government and therefore they should limit unrealistic demands.
Furthermore, the study is intended to draw attention of parents, the public and private individuals, private and public cooperation and philanthropic bodies to the noble role of secondary education and its predicaments and urge them to make additional contributions financially and other wise towards recurrent and capital projects.
Finally, it is hoped that the study will create a future reference point for students, researchers, private, public organizations and the government in the study of funding and management in Nigerian secondary schools.
1.8 The Scope Study
The study examines funding of government owned Secondary Schools in Nigeria and the management techniques adopted in managing these scare resources.
In doing this, the researcher focused his attention on all federal and state public secondary schools in Nigeria. Similarly, the study examined some choice Government secondary schools in Nigeria where the entire country is given a fair representation through the geographic zones.
In addition the study focuses mainly on Principals, Ministry of Education officials and teachers on their perception on the impact of funding on the effective management of secondary schools in Nigeria.
Finally, the study was limited by challenges and constraints of data. Some principals and Ministry of Education official may be cautious and suspicious about offering the needed information and records.