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POLITICAL CORRUPTION AND ITS IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT: A CASES STUDY OF DELTA STATE
1.1 Background of the Study
Corruption is a common term at the local, national and international level. Political corruption is a symptom of something gone wrong in the management of the state. Politically, corruption entails the extortion and misuse of public goods for the utilization of a few. In Nigeria, it is incontestable that corruption has assumed a ludicrous dimension. The Nigerian situation aptly fits into what Myrdal described in Amuwo (2005), as the “folklore of corruption”. To Ogundiya (2010:235), the consequences of political corruption are patently manifested in:
Cyclical crisis of legitimacy, fragile party structure, institutional decay, chronic economic problem and underdevelopment and above all, general democratic volatility Godfatherism has undoubtedly fuelled Nigeria‟s corruption epidemic as politicians use every means available to them, legal or illegal to win political positions. Some western diplomats estimated that Nigeria lost a minimum average of $4 billion to $8 billion per year to corruption over the eight years of the Obasanjo administration (HRW, 2007).
The point was made earlier that the relationship between the godfather and godson is instrumental: the godfather assures the latter of electoral success and the godson uses his political power after wining the election to advance the social, economic and political influence of his mentor. This explains why politics in Nigeria is usually a contest of power between godfathers. They come out with all the tricks that could help to give their candidates victory. The tricks include multiple voting, exchanging official ballot boxes with unofficial ones already filled with voting papers, stealing electoral boxes, chasing voters away from constituencies where their candidates are likely to have few votes, killing and wounding political opponents, bribery, etc. in the socio-economic realm, political corruption impacts on development through various way as high crime rate and economic instability among others.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to Akindele (1995) corruption is undeniably a socio-political economic and moral malaise that usually holistically permeate all the nerves of any polity. It is contagious and malignant to the physiology of any political system. Once it sets into any part; it automatically contaminates all the strata of the system’s socio-political structures in ways symmetrical to the spread of a bush fire. The Institutionalization of Corruption The sociological approach tends to identify corruption as a social problem. A social problem connotes an act of a form of behaviour which constitutes concern to a significant proportion of the society to warrant a common solution by that society. The structural-functionalists regard social problems as serious behavioural deviations hindering the functioning of society; social problems are regarded as inhibiting the needs and goals of society. It is hypothesized in this paper that when corruption becomes institutionalized in a society, it infiltrates into the value-system, it becomes a norm, part and parcel of culture and subsequently goes into the realm of behaviour. To this end, corruption becomes a social problem that must be critically and seriously addressed. Nigeria has long been treading the brink of this national catastrophe due to the almost uncontainable intensity of corruption of a viable, virile and stable polity. It also constitutes the greatest hindrance to the moral uprightness of the citizens.
1.3 Purposes of the Study
- To examine the effect of political corruption on politics, administrations and institutions in Delta State
- To examine the effect of political corruption on humanitarian aids in Delta State
- To examine the effect of political corruption on economic development in Delta State
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the effect of political corruption on politics, administrations and institutions in Delta State?
- What is the effect of political corruption on humanitarian aids in Delta State?
- What is the effect of political corruption on economic development in Delta State?
- There is no significant effect of political corruption on politics, administrations and institutions in Delta State
- There is no significant effect of political corruption on humanitarian aids in Delta State
- There is no significant effect of political corruption on economic development in Delta State
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study can be viewed from the following perspectives. One main significance of this study is that when completed, it would serve as a bridge for the gap that have been created between where previous works on this subject area stopped and today. This study is significant in the sense that it’s finding would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study.
The government would benefit from this study in view of the fact that they would learn about factors contributing to the political corruption in Delta State of Nigerian and possible ways to redeem the image of Nigerian politics at the global scene.
The outcome of this research is hoped to be of immense use to students of politics and human behavour since it contains information on political corruption
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to political corruption and its impact on development using Okpe Local government area of delta state as a study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the respondents through questionnaire also constituted a constraint in the study.
Finally, there was the problem of convincing the respondents on the primary objectives of the questionnaire so as to give the true and required information. However, the intervention of the community PROs in the selected villages who took time to clear the air and convince his countrymen helped the investigator to administer the instrument successfully.