Every material on this site is authentic and was extracted from the complete available project.Click to GET IT NOW
MS-WORD DOC || CHAPTERS: 1-5 || PAGES: 52 || PRICE: ₦3000
PORT SECURITY AGENCIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY
The term security refers to the conditions of safety or feeling safe from danger. This concerns the defense, protection and preservation of fundamental values and the absence of threat to acquired values. Similarly, security is defined as the defense, police and intelligence functions of states, and the management of threats to peace and breaches of peace through multilateral and bilateral processes (Eze and Hettman, 2005).
National security is about protecting a country from attack or any other danger by having adequate armed forces and protecting state secrets, property and citizens. It encompasses economic security, monetary security, energy security, property security, environmental security, military security, political security and the security of energy and natural resources. National security can also be understood as designating the protection of a nation-state, including its citizens, economy and institutions, and is considered a duty of the government. It is necessary to maintain the survival of the state through economic power, diplomacy, the projection of power and political power. Initially centered on military power, it now encompasses a wide range of facets, all of which affect the non-military or economic security of the nation and the values attached to the national society.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In sea transport, also known as marine transport, ports play a fundamental role, which for centuries has been the main precondition for trade between nations and regions. Cargo is temporarily deposited at ports upon arrival at ports, before being cleared and shipped. However, many vices can be perpetuated by thugs in ports, port agents, the importer and others on a limited list. Port security must be able to assess these threats to the port and respond appropriately to these threats. Therefore, the port security service must be proactive rather than reactive. However, port security must use all forms of intelligence information, promote awareness within the port community, provide training, prepare practices and set up security plans. The goal should be to identify the processes and procedures that can be implemented while adapting to a changing environment.
Every booming port must have manly security equipment to minimize theft, as no port is totally immune to such incidents. The combination of the outfit varies from one port to another. The port complex at Apapa includes port security, port police and naval police, the navy, and men from the state security services. Amongst others, there are men from the military intelligence unit, the national drug law and the Nigerian customs responsible for monitoring the port and its immediate waters. Although individual companies also use their security equipment to facilitate communication and monitor unauthorized activities. It may happen that stolen property is found and that suspects are prosecuted. However, they do not have the modern equipment needed to perform their tasks effectively. The role of security agencies in managing insecurity issues in Nigeria's port terminals is an important and strategic part of economic development and national security. Since these agencies play an important role in the organization and management of the port's activities, their actions and inactions could affect the port's overall activities.
The goal of port security is to create an environment in which trade can be conducted with reasonable assurance that it is not encumbered by criminal activity and does not become a vehicle for that activity. A port security service should seek to limit the potential for criminal exploitation of the maritime transport system, its suppliers and its users. When developing a security program, the focus should be on deterrence, prevention, detection and reduction of losses from criminal activity. To do this, port security operations must be proactive rather than reactive. This requires information and coordination of investigations with law enforcement and security services of maritime sector companies using port facilities.
On the international approach, a more vigorous check is needed to subdue criminal activities. For instance, penalties for criminals smuggling aliens are weak often times and smuggling is not considered a crime in many countries. The U.S. Department of State has stressed the importance of multilateral cooperation among governments. Building networks of diplomacy and law enforcement are necessary in order to alleviate such problems as alien smuggling, characterized as not only an immigration problem but also a national security problem. Port security may not really be totally written off in the area of efficiency, but supplementary effort and attention still need to be invested both internationally and locally in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are many security agents, both law enforcement officers and non-fugitive agents who claim to be public servants to ensure the general security of the port of Apapa. Despite this, the ports are easily accessible to a multitude of thugs, now known as "what rats" and unions of other actors who have taken up residence in the ports.
They vandalize the lighting system to allow them to carry out their natural and notorious activities.
All of these crimes can now be perpetrated by these thugs who act in cohorts with some of the security guards and port officials. Crew members who land are sometimes violently attacked and stolen inside and outside the ports.
At present, the surrounding areas of Apapa are experiencing a dramatic increase in various forms of maritime crime, such as the theft and diversion in transit of containers and entire trailers, as well as drug and migrant trafficking. Maritime crime is perpetrated by highly organized and sophisticated criminal groups capable of exploiting international maritime trade.
Investigations have linked criminals involved in cargo theft with transnational drug trafficking and money-laundering activities in Apapa. The theft of goods can become such a serious problem in the country that it poses a serious threat to the flow of trade.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The general objective of this study is to access the port security agencies in Nigeria in relation to national security.
Other objectives of the study are:
- To examine the roles security agencies in the management of insecurity in Apapa Port
- To identify the security threats to the Apapa Ports
- To examine the roles of security agencies in the management of insecurity in Apapa Port.
- To identify the roles of government in promoting national security through the port
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the roles security agencies in the management of insecurity in Apapa Port?
- What are the major security threats to the Apapa Ports?
- What are the roles of security agencies in the management of insecurity in Apapa Port?
- What are the roles of government in promoting national security through the port?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant because it seeks to provide the FGN, policy makers and security and anti-corruption agencies with a vivid understanding of incessant crimes and security related crisis at the port. Furthermore, it will assist in informed policy formulation and the institution of more effective measures against economic crimes.
It also seeks to enrich the existing body of knowledge, provoke further discussions and raise more public awareness on the menace of security challenges in Nigeria ports.
It will provide scholars and researchers with new basic reference materials for further research work on the subject matter.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The present study on port security agencies and national security was restricted to Apapa port complex. Apapa Port Complex also known as the Lagos Port Complex is Nigeria's largest and busiest port complex, Salisu, (2017) The complex consist of a number of facilities including Apapa quays, Third Apapa Wharf Extension, Apapa Dockyard, Apapa Petroluem Wharf, Bulk Vegetable Oil Wharf, Ijora Wharf, Kirikiri Lighter Terminal, and Lily pond inland container terminal. Financed and built by the colonial government of Nigeria, It became the nation's busiest port for exporting agricultural produce from the provinces of Western and Northern Nigeria in the late 1920s. Administration was transferred to the Nigerian government upon the granting of self-government and In 2005, the complex was divided into terminals and contracted out to private operators with NPA acting as the landlord and regulator.
A major factor that led to the creation of Apapa Port Complex was the completion of the Western railway with Lagos as the main terminus, thereafter, a need arose for a facility to load and discharge goods in either direction of Western Nigeria and the Northern provinces. But at the time, much of the natural harbours within Lagos were not conducive for ships due to the presence of a natural sandbar and heavy tides, this barrier sometimes caused goods to Lagos to be diverted to the calmer entrance of Forcados. In 1906, a large capital expenditure was budgeted for the dredging of Lagos harbor and the construction of two stone moles to facilitate access to ocean going vessels, in 1913, the engineering works were completed and ocean going shipping vessels had access to the Lagos harbour. In 1919, a 180-foot wharf was extended to Apapa, a location which had been decided will be the terminus for the Western railway. In 1926, following the completion of four berths totaling 1,800 ft in length, Apapa began to dominate the other wharves at Iddo and Lagos Island otherwise as Customs wharf in the shipment of export goods. Between 1928 and 1929, it handled 201,307 tonnes of exports goods, and between 1937 and 1938, Apapa wharf handled about 370,000 tonnes of cargo, in 1953, it handled close to 700,000 tonnes. After the end of World War II, additional engineering works led to the reclamation of land for ground facilities such as passenger terminals, cargo sheds and custom facilities. During this period, control of the port complex was diffused, the Marine department was in charge of maintaining passage, storage and berthing of ships, private shipping firms performed lighteringservices while the railway corporation also performed port operations at its terminus.
The rise of movement of goods by road put a strain on the existing road infrastructure and a new outlet was constructed to link Apapa through Mushin to Ibadan and further up-north.
Beginning in 1956, the newly formed NPA began to expand the number of berths within the complex, adding an additional six berthing space. This extension of the wharf was completed in 1961. A second extension was completed during the first national development plan between 1962 and 1968. The increased space caused the port to further lead in cargo handling and by the end of 1966, it handled a cargo load of 1.9 million tonnes. After the second extension, the land area of the wharf was about 100 hectares with the ability to handle twenty loading or discharging vessels at a time. A third extension along the Badagry creek was completed in 1979. The authorities created facilities for loading and discharging bulk cement and grains. (Wiki)
The Port of Apapa Container Terminal generates over 125billion naira in a fiscal year, covers 44 hectares and can handle up to 22 thousand TEUs of containerized cargo. With six berths with alongside depth of 10.5 meters and total quay length of 950 meters, the Port of Apapa Container Terminal also contains 6.4 thousand square meters of covered storage. The container yard has capacity for 19.5 thousand TEUs, and it contains 298 reefer plugs.
Nigeria Ports Authority management declared the sum of #299.56 billion as a generated revenue for 2017 fiscal year, highest compared to the last five years. The Apapa Ports complex and other seaports in general make available warehouses and ensure prompt evacuation of cargoes from the seaports to the hinterland. In addition, the managing director stated that thirty three, (33), ships laden with petroleum product, food items and other goods are expected to arrive at Apapa port and Tin-Can Island port in Lagos from January 29 to February 2018 as a way of boosting the economy of this country Nigeria.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Port: town or city with a harbour or access to navigable water where ships load or unload.
security: refers to all the measures that are taken to protect a place, or to ensure that only people with permission enter it or leave it.
security agencies: is a governmental organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation.
national security: National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions
cargo: cargo or freight is goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain