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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG FCT COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STUDENTS, ZUBA, NIGERIA
1.1 Background to the Study
The students in Nigerian tertiary used various media and objects such as drums, flutes, gongs etc; for communication and the class rooms‟ discussion was not left out. Objects such as stones and sticks were used to count as stones and sticks were used to count numbers. The use of writing and invention of printing materials transformed the type and context of recorded history communication in a tremendous progression. Through the utilization of books, new-papers, magazines and radio; instructions were given to students at different level of education. Education is now supported and enhanced with the application of information and communication Technology (ICT) in learning process.
The world is being reduced to a global village through the use of ICT. This ICT is characterized by the revolutionary advancement. However, ICT promotes national development and better relationship with other nations. The use of ICT by the Nigerian students‟ in institutions is increasing and dramatically growing whereby increasing the students‟ academic performance. Learning by the use of ICTs seek to improve students‟ performance. However, there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being used by students. The new emerging technologies (ICTs) challenges the traditional process of learning and the way education is managed ICT usage provides instance access to vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills. Rapid communication plus increased accessed to ICTs in the and in Educational sector for learning because a truly lifelong activity and activity in which the pace of technology changes forces constant evolution of learning (Fowowe, 2006).
The advancement in technology has facilitate in the development of meant ICT tools that is necessary and useful in education. The knowledge of ICT usage improves human capacity in every field of human endeavor such as educational programs and activities. In the last two decades, the higher institutions have invested heavenly in ICT tools by procuring facilities such as projectors, installation of internet, facilities importantly the purchase of computers for teaching and learning process (Oye,Obi &Moh‟d, 2012).
The provision of ICTs to schools and its use for Educational purpose can enhance students‟ academic performance in two ways; first, the availability of ICT in the classroom shift the level of educational input and could thus affect students learning outcome. Secondly, explosive to ICT tools may increase the cognitive abilities of students, allowing them to learn faster. The current issue is the ICT usage in relation to students‟ academic performance which is in the heart of an extensive literature in this work. Several studies have freed to explain the roles, the added values of those technologies in learning and students‟ academic performance. Since the internet revolution, there is a shift in the literature that focuses more on the impact of online activities; use of internet; use of educative on line platforms; digital devices such as phones. Calculators etc in education. These new technologies are central to contemporary society and therefore referred to this era as information Technology age. However, the use of ICTs by students in learning is just the beginning to gain popularity and researches in the area that have just started emerging. Emphatically, the use of ICTs by students is highly advantageous. This is because it enables them demonstrating understanding of opportunities and implications of the uses for learning in open and flexible learning environment (UNESCO, 2004).
Rockoff, (2010) pointed out that the education community is not left out in the consequences of ICT usage utilization on academic performance of students. He highlighted the benefit of ICTs in learning process as follows:
Increase students‟ motivation towards learning
Encourage the use of peer coaching and peer group discussion.
Improve students‟ quality of work
Develop student communication and vocational skills.
Improve poor handwriting and language skills through word processing. Enhance students assimilation through graphics (pictures) and audio-visual application that shapes educational outcomes
Enhance academic performance due to the reinforcement and practice that ICT afforded. It is revealed than an average students who use computer- based instruction scored higher than student without computer and the students also learnt more in less time.
ICT refers to electronic and communication devices associated with human interactive materials that enable users to employ them for a whole range of learning process (Cox, Preston and Cox 1999). ICT is the fusion of two technologies: They are information Technology (IT) and communication Technology (CT) (Iwu, 2006).
ICT embraces all technologies for manipulative communication of information and also encompasses any medium used to record information such as: radio, television, etc., and technology for communication through voice and sound or images using microphones, camera, loudspeaker, telephone/mobile phones (Osu, and Akpan, 2010). Information and communication Technologies (ICTs) are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world, expectant of giving a new phase to the education
system in terms of pedagogical approach (Ololube, 2006). According to Fari (2010), ICT Facilities are described as all the facilities available for the identification, generation, processing storage, packaging, preservation, conservation and transfer of information, regardless of time and distance constraints. In other words, ICts are information handling tools used for producing, storing, processing, distributing and exchanging of information. Today, it is an increasingly powerful tool for participating in global markets promoting political accountability, improving the delivery of basic services and enhancing local development opportunities (UNDP, 2006). ICT facilities influence and affect peoples‟ private and corporate work life in one way or the other. These ICT facilities are all encompassing in areas like technology, socialization, politics, economics, and education, for global transformation. Therefore, it becomes pertinent for teachers, who serve as key implementers of the nation‟s educational policy, to be well-informed and adequately equipped with ICT facilities in order to function productively in this age of information explosion and technological advancement.
The Federal Ministry of Education (2010) state that, the policy provides the needed guidance on what is expected in the entire process of ICT integrating in education to all stakeholders in education. It‟s implementation, therefore should lead to a speedy transformation of education. This in turnfoster the production of graduates in the education system that can survive in the contemporary society, sustain national development and competence globally. The realization of this policy statement lies basically in the capability of the key implementers of the nation‟s educational policy, that is, teachers to integrate ICT. Driven instructional aides effectively through computerAssisted mode of instruction (CAI) in their day to day classroom activities for effective pedagogy. It is clear that ICT is a world of its own, it has various diversified
aspect. The aspect relevant to this study is ICT- Driven instructional aide basically, the “Computer Assisted Mode of Instruction (CAI).
According to Nwike and Chukwudum (2011) CAI is one of the products of computer technology and it proves to be an effective method of instruction delivery. It is pertinent to note that CAI has a major advantage of individual instruction by presenting varied and flexible experiences to the individual learner and takes care of learners‟ in difference. It also makes use of guided discovery and inquiry method which ensure the application of effective teaching methods to the learner. It therefore implies that the provision of these ICT- driven instructional facilities on their own cannot make any impact on students‟ academic performance until they are effectively utilities in the teaching and learning process. Ojafor (2009), states that, in applying the CAI mode of instruction, the computer is fed in sequential manner with what to teach, the step to follow, how to evaluate success, how and when other classroom activities are to be carried out this informs the basis of investigating into the ICT usage and student academic performance in FCT, Federal College of Education Zuba, Abuja.
The National Policy on Education states that education is an instrument for effecting national development (FRN,2004). It makes the incorporation of ICT into teaching learning process a vital instructional tool in fostering the national educational goal and development. To buttress this, Galenouh, Gordlier and murphy (2004), opined that, the development and role of ICT in educational sector is believed to set the pace for any form of innovation and changes that can ever happen to any nation. It was asserted by Albirini(2006) that, the wind of change in day‟s education sector have made ICT to be programmed towards meeting the set educational goals.
There are challenges and concerns as a result of knowledge explosion due to the introduction of ICT in almost every field of human endeavor, which calls for an awakening in teaching and learning process. As an information handling tools, ICT can be used in producing, storing, processing, distributing and exchanging of information. It therefore, implies that ICT could help students to be more serious using ICT tools and be resourceful. Hence, this will make learners to become less cumbersome and productive thereby improving students academic performance. Basically, the utilization of the ICTs is meant to serve as an orientation stimulus to support the students in learning process.
The benefits of ICT as an important tool in teaching and learning of school subjects such as mathematics, English language, psychology etc. could enable them understand and learn the subject better. According to Walstad (2001), little attention has been given to the improvement of teaching and learning of school subjects in recent decades. He further stated that passive learning based on the traditional form of “chalk and talk” has widely characterized by the 20th century style of teaching of school subjects in the Maldives in Asia. According to Jephcote (2004) the teaching of school subject as well as how it is being learnt has been very much under-researched in many part of the world. In like manner, Jegede (2002), noted that society is too as low in its enormous advantage. This in –turn could pose a. threat to development of a national development. Therefore, if Nigeria will meet up with the global technological advancement through the use of ICT, then, education must be given utmost priority and teacher Education must be its guiding principle since no nation can rise above the standard of her teacher (FRN, 2004). The Federal Ministry of Education (2010) has mandated the integration of ICT in education for speedy transformation of teaching, learning and administration of education as a positive step in the right direction. Therefore, it because pertinent that a
study on the “relationship between ICT usage and Academic performances among students of FCT, college of Education Zuba- Abuja” be conducted to ascertain its impact on the learners.
Academic performance is the attainment obtainedby a students in the lesson taught, which may include, experience, knowledge, skill and like. The knowledge and skills and manipulates with the use of ICTs resources.Cohen & Garcia (2006) defines academic performance as “knowledge attaining ability or degree of competence in school. Task usually measured by standardized test and expressed in grade or unit based on students‟ performance.
Academic performance refers to what the students have learned and usually measured through assessment and portfolio assessment (Santrack, 2006). Academic performance is the observable or measureable behavior of a person in a particular situation, the observed behavior or expectation of achieving a specific statement of or statement of educational in tensionin a scores obtained from teacher-made test so on. For example. The academic performance of a student in a particular school subject or course that astudent offer includes observable and measurable behavior of a student at any point in time during a course (Simpsai and Weiner, 2004).
Performance of students in the classroom and college or education (institution) takes a central role in the academic development of the student. Parent, teacher and school administrator alike take cognizance of the academic well-being of the student. Yardskicks are seat by school authority to measure performance, the standard set by the institution will determine whether a student is performing well or not. In the assessment of performance Pekrum &Elliot (2006) argued that achievement is the behavior of an individual that can be directly observed by another individual, therefore academic
performance has been seen as a term used for student based on how well they are doing in studies and classes. This definition tends to see academic activities of student in the school. Academic performance for student in higher institution is also seen as the extent to which a student has achieved his educational goals. This means the student academic performance is measured by the extent to which educational goal he has set for hero/ himself. The institution measures academic performance in continuous assessment test (CAT), Assignment and examination. By this method, areas of strength and weakness in a students‟ academic performance on using ICTs is determine and evaluated in order to improve on the learning process of the student. (Pekrun and Parry, 2007).
1.2Statement of the Problem
The pattern of teaching and learning process today is expected to shift from the conventional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is learner- centered (Ezekok and Okoli, 2012). This learner- centered approach makes materials and pace of learning, which places them in the center of the learning process and enhances independent learning (Collins and O‟Brien, 2003). Student in the FCT, College of Education Zuba –Abuja have interest of using ICT tools for learning at home and in classroom for research and study purposes. Using ICT tools like computers, phones etc give them access to internet and this has really help them, improve in school subjects learning with excellent academic performance. Students who have access to a computer for educational purpose (not circular purpose) demonstrates improve scores in school subjects. This acquisition help the students to develop the technological skills in problem solving process, increase students motivation toward learning, Encourage use of peer coaching and peer review, improve teacher- students quality of work, Develop communication and vocational skills through word processing and enhance academic performance due to the reinforcement and practice that ICTs afforded.
The interest of the research in this work has been on how to use ICT tools based on previous knowledge on ICT usage to support learning and teaching process in order to enhance motivation in learning which improves academic performance. The research also sees whether this technological advancement which involves application of computers to study affects students‟ academic performance in a positive way. The uses of computers are now integrated with teaching and learning process which in-turn yields a greater outcome in students‟ academic performance.
The finding indicates that participating in a net-work community of learners improve educational outcomes for at-risk students. This studyhave even suggested that recent students in institutions increase in academic test score which attribute to exposure to the proliferation of many in ICT usage.The need to make use of modern ICT tools in learning/teaching process therefore, arises because this study is designed to find out the relationship between ICT usage and Academic performance among students. The researcher also assess the difference between male and female ICT usage and academic performance among the students of FCT, college of Education Zuba, Abuja.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were to:
- find out the relationship between ICT usage and academic performance among students of FCT College of Education Zuba,.
- investigate differencebetween students using ICT tools for academic purpose perform better than those who are not using ICT tools among students of FCT College of Education, Zuba.
- determine gender difference in ICT usage amongstudent of FCT Federal College of Education Zuba.
- assessgender difference in ICT usage on academic performance among computer students of FCT Federal College of Education Zuba, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the relationship between ICT usage and academic performance among students of FCT College of Education Zuba?
- What is the difference between students using ICT tools for academic purpose perform better than those who are not using ICT tools among students of FCT College of Education, Zuba?
- What is the gender difference in ICT usage among student of FCTCollege of Education,Zuba?
- What is the gender difference in ICT usage on academic performance among computer students of FCTCollege of Education Zuba, Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant relationship between ICT usage and academic performance among students of FCT College of Education Zuba.
- There is no significant differences between students using ICT tools for academic purpose perform better than those who are not using ICT tools among students of FCT College of Education, Zuba.
- There is no significant differences between male and female in ICT usage among student of FCT Federal College of Education Zuba.
- There is no significant differences between male and female in ICT usage on academic performance among computer students of FCT, Federal College of Education Zuba, Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of the study:
- It is assumed that, relationship may exist between ICT usage and Academic performance among the students of FCT College of Education Zuba.
- It is assumed that, significant relationship of ICT usage may exist between students using ICT tools for academic purpose and those that are not using ICT tolls among students of FCT, Federal College of Education Zuba.
- It is assumed that, significant differences may exist between male and female ICT usage of students in school of science and social science among students of FCT, Federal College of Education Zuba.
- It is assumed that, differences may exist between male and female ICT usage and Academic performance among student of FCT, Federal College of Education Zuba, Nigeria.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study cut across several levels of the nation‟s educational system, ranging from policy makers, stakeholders down to the major beneficiaries who are the students. The significance are carefully enumerated as follows:-
The study hopes to help view possible factors hindering the effective implementation of ICT policy in education especially in higher institution with the aim of solving them and improving students academic performance. The study will hopefully made the Federal, States and Education Authorities to know the extent to which ICT facilities are available in the institutions for learning process as well as know the level of usage of these facilities by students for learning process.
More so, it has hoped that the study will bring out areas of inadequacies of the ICTsin the institutions with the hope that the authorities will help them to overcome challenges to increase learningamongst students. The school administrators are expected to have maximum benefits from this study because it is targeted towards knowing how to useICT in relation to students Academic Performance. This will help the students to know the important of computers and its relevance to effectiveness for better performance academically and this will inturn boost the image of the school in the community. Teachers will find this study helpful in so many ways. Specifically, some teachers who are reluctant to embrace this innovation or illiterate in the teaching profession and also ensure the success of their students academically.
ICT usage will be of helpful to student who are exposed to these ICTs, they will learn how to use them independently to explore information in school subjects and this will in turn increase their skills and performance in examination. Learning became easier, real and concrete for students on their own parts who have knowledge of ICT can engage in individual learning at home for better understanding of concepts.
The NGOs and philanthropic organization who are interested in educational advancement of the nation will see possible areas that requires ICT facilities in schools and the need for their support and donations.
Most interestingly, the curriculum planners will benefits from the study because some aspects of the school subjects curriculum which are out-dated will require a review and new methodology may be adopted in pedagogy such as incorporating/ integrating the use of ICTs to meet present global best practice.
It is hoped that schooners and future researchers carrying out studies in the field of ICTs usage and learning school subjects will find this work useful and the
finding will increase the contribution to the body of knowledge by taking up research work on some suggested areas recommended for future studies toward the nation‟s developments at large.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study is limited to the investigation of the ICT usage in relation to students academic performance among students of FCT, college of educationZuba. The researcher hopes to carry out an in-depth study basically on how ICT usagehave enhanced the performance of the students. Hopes to cover all studentsof NCE II of school of Sciences and school of Art and Social Sciences in the same college. However, the study is delimited to School of Sciences and School of Art and Social Science in FCT, College of Education. Likewise, it is delimited to only NCE II students that have ICTs facilities such as computer systems, CD-ROMs, Projectors, Video- Cassette player and electronic white board.