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ROLE OF TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA. (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA NORTH SENATORIAL ZONE)
The colonial administration of the pre-independence era in Nigeria used traditional authorities on large scale in governance. Ever since then, traditional authorities have found themselves confronted with providing complimentary leadership in their domain. Their relevance in the contemporary societies appear to be diminishing with the result that various tiers of government appear to perceive and use them in governance in different ways and levels. This study appraised the roles and place of traditional authorities in Nigeria with particular reference to Anambra North Senatorial Zone of Anambra State. For this purpose, a structured questionnaire was designed and administrated to 200 samples selected among traditional rulers, key local government council officials and key officials of Ananbra State Ministry of Local Government and Chieftaincy Matters. Following the collection and analysis of data, some salient findings were registered. They include among others, the fact that.
a) Traditional authorities play some essential and fundamental roles in governance in Nigeria
b) They were not only recognized but also enjoy a significant place in governance especially at the grassroots level.
c) They performed their roles and functions very well and satisfactorily.
d) They engaged in the settlement and resolution of intra and inter communal feuds.
e) Chieftaincy feuds and tussles were found to occur to a moderate extent within Igbo communities.
f) To some extent which is considered small, government interfered in the activities and function of traditional authorities within Igbo speaking states of Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Theoritical Foundation of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms and Acronyms
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Traditional Authorities in the Pre-Colonial Era in Igbo-land
2.2 Traditional Authorities and Their Roles in Colonial
Administration in Nigeria
2.3 The Roles of Traditional Authorities in Governance
2.4 Traditional Authorities and Community Development
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2.1 Primary Sources
3.2.2 Secondary Sources
3.3 Location of Study
3.4 Data Collection
3.6 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
3.8 Validity of Instrument
3.9 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
3.10 Instrument Rate of Returns
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The early colonial administration in Nigeria and indeed English Speaking West African States used traditional authorities in large scale in their system of indirect rule. Ever since then, the relevance of traditional authorities in governance especially in Nigeria has always manifested in divers forms and degrees. This was in realization of the relevance of traditional authorities in the governance of primitive communities and kingdoms as well as the desire by the colonial authorities not to disrupt an already existing system and to reduce the volume of manpower requirement for indirect rule.
Before then, traditional authorities essentially provided leadership for the various communities and kingdoms. However, the system of traditional government varied from place to place. In Igbo land for example the system of government was quite unique and transcends the democracy of America and Europe. Virtually every group was involved in the day to day affairs of each community, Isichei (1976:38) quite acknowledged this that one thing that struck the first colonial visitors to Igbo-land was the extent to which democracy was truly practiced. Characteristically, different political institutions with varying combinations abound in Igbo-land. This system of government has been referred to severally by several authors as aristocracy; although Isichei believed that it is quite at variance with the popular aristocracy as was practiced in most other parts of the world.
Whatever is the case, the political system in the Northern and western part of the appear completely different from that of Igbo-land. In the west for example Obas were sole authorities and these have absolute power and authority over their territories.
While in the North following the Jihad, Emirates were delineated and placed under the rulership of Emirs who are only account table to the Northern Nigeria caliphate (the Sultan of Sokoto). The system of traditional government in the Northern Nigeria provided a veritable ground and an impetus for the introduction of indirect rule by the British Colonial government. The success registered in the North was to encourage the colonial administration to extend such system in Southern Nigeria. This was in the bid to universalize indirect rule in Nigeria in line with the British Government’s policy of indirect rule.
This was not quite welcomed and successful in Igbo-land. This is principally because of the fact that it was not in line with the prevailing political system and structure. In Igbo-land for example, although there were constituted authorities that provided governance to the various communities, yet power and governance was essentially a collective responsibility, except in few communities such as Aboh and Onitsha which had traditions originating from some where else. There were hardly communities that were ruled by kings (Ezes). This gave rise to the popular ibo adage “Igbo enwe Eze” (the King in every man).
However, even in such isolated communities that have Ezes (Kings) the powers of such Ezes were not absolute although they may appear sacred and often lived in ritual seclusion. Agwuna (1978:15 – 16) for example expressed that in Igbo-land Kings were not absolute and therefore do not posses absolute powers, rather they took decisions in conjunction with “Ndichie” (red cap Chiefs) and representative of other relevant groups.
Also, the colonial government in order to harmonise indirect rule selected and installed warrant Chiefs many of whom were of questionable character and doubtful background. This resulted in wide range unacceptability of warrant Chiefs.
The attainment of independence in 1960 and the introduction of constitutional government saw a gradual decline in the political powers and influences of traditional authorities across the country. Overtime, traditional authorities became, gradually irrelevant in the political scheme of things. The period following the emergence of the government of Murtala Mohammed (around 1976) witnessed a boost in the political influence and powers of traditional authorities. In 1976, for example, the Federal Government articulated a national policy which aimed to restore the influence and respects of traditional authorities. This was to incorporate them in both rural administration and development, as well as restore and sustain the country’s rich cultural heritage.
The need for this study emerged in response to these development. This is as a result of the renewed desire for an effective medium and instrument for mass mobilization at the grass root level for rural and national development. This study specially seek the role of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria with particular reference to Anambra North Senatorial zone of Anambra State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of this study emerged in response to the desire to identify veritable medium and instrument for rural administration and grass root mobilization for economic development, social justice and social order. It must be realized that the establishment of the three tiers of government is in pursuance of this desire. Yet much more is still desirable. The appraisal of traditional authorities and their roles in governance in Nigeria became very necessary and appropriate as part of the efforts in searching for a viable alternative.
Evidence are mounting to show that there three tiers of government have been failing in reaching out to same rural communities for effective mobilization for economic and social order. Thus clashes and inter community fends appear to be on the increase. The cases of Warri clash, Tiv-Jukun clash, and the Aguleri-Umuleri clash just to mention a few are still fresh. In most of the cases traditional authorities were used by the government in settling such fends. Thus pointing to a veritable role which traditional authorities can be used to perform.
It is argued however that traditional authorities are often closer to the people since they are constituted from amount the people, the tendency for the people to respect and listen to them is higher.
Also, since they are part of the communities they are completely in tune with their needs, aspirations and culture and traditions, yet evidence exists to show that constitutional government appear to show less interest in delegating authorities. This appear to make them redundant and irrelevant in the political scheme of things. The result is that their wisdom and resourcefulness which could have been taped for mere effective governance and economic development at the rural level are allowed to waste.
Worst still, the generality of Nigerian societies are fast losing their culture which is enshrined in their way of life. Their value systems, aspirations, attitudes, norms etc are fast fading. This is as a result of over acculturation which manifested in their preference for foreign goods and ways of life. This made the search for an instrument for cultural sustenance especially through government imperative.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The fundamental objective of this study was to specifically identify and appraise the roles of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria. To achieve this attempt was made to
(a) Identify the roles of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria.
(b) Identify the place of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria.
(c) Assess the performance of traditional authorities in governance mobilization for economic and social order.
(d) Identify the roles of traditional authorities in settling inter and intra community fends.
(e) Determine the extent of Chieftaincy fends and tussles in Igbo land.