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SURVEY OF THE CONTROL PROGAMMES ON SUBSTANCES ABUSE AMONG YOUTHS AND ADULTS IN KATSINA STATE
The purpose of the study was to survey the control programmes on substances abuse among youths and adults in Katsina state. The study was to assess the effectiveness of substances abuse control programmes. To achieve the purpose of the research questions were raised and each question was postulated. Six questions were raised and hypotheses were formulated and tested. A survey research design was adopted based on the fact that the event were observed. The data collected in this study were analyzed using statistical package of social science (SPSS). The sample size of 38 were used as suggested by Krecjie and Morgan (2000). The instrument used in this study for the purpose of collecting data was the questionnaire and the instruments was divided into three (3) sections A to C and each section consisted of different number of items based on information needed. The data obtained from the questionnaire were grouped, tabulated and analyzed using frequencies and percentages. However, the hypotheses were tested with inferential statistics the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the significance of related variables used for the research. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance, all the recommendations were made according to the findings in the study. Based on the findings, programmes on substance abuse control are significantly affected by various factors such as socio economic condition and availability of drug as well as environmental factors which seen as service factors that influence substance abuse control programme in Katsina state. Such environmental factors include; economic income, population, educational status, physical and socio cultural condition of the people. Thus government should establish more agencies that will support substance abuse control programme in the country. Motivational mechanism should be systematically applied by the institution concerned. NDLEA so as to improve the standard of planned programme on substance abuse control in Katsina State and the country at large. Some of substance abuse control programme in Katsina State are: Effective offender’s management, Supply drug reduction programme, Indentify drug user scheme, Intelligence operation programme, Social Programme (Peer education and support) and Research based prevention programme.
1.1 Background of the Study
Documented empirical evidence indicates that substance abuse among young people, especially students, is assuming an unprecedented upward surge worldwide. Substance abuse among students is associated with myriad of negative physical, social and psychological consequences, including liver, cranial and cardiovascular diseases, cancers, vehicular fatalities, mental and behavior disorder, violence, declining grades, increased potential for dropout and high truancy rates, suicides, homicides and accidental injuries.
With current development worldwide, efforts have been made by various countries to prevent substance abuse among youths and children. Various establishments and law enforcement agencies as well as educational, social and skill-building programs have been putting efforts to control substance abuse for the benefit of the society.
The National Institute on Drug (2010) maintained that, when research-based substance use prevention programs are properly implemented by schools and communities, use of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs will be reduced. Such programs help teachers, parents and health care professionals to shape youths‟ perceptions about the risks of substance abuse. While many social and cultural factors affect drug use trends, when young people perceive drug use as harmful, they reduce their level of use.
Nigeria like any other country in the world, joined the European countries in trying to coordinate their strategies on substance abuse control programmes according to the obligations they took by signing the United Nations Conventions. Research has shown that their goal is to develop more effective joint system for drug traffic control.
This was done through a joint European Union (EU) system for drug traffic control by bringing closer all the elements in their repressive law enforcement systems (Customers, Police and Justice) by the year 2004. With the systematic exchange of information and joint actions, it would be easier to intervene in international organized crime/ corruption, money laundry, precursor control.
The use of drugs is determined largely by market forces; with increases in affordability and availability deprive use. People with socio-economic deprivation, however measured, are at high risk of harmful drug use, as are those with disadvantaged family environment, and those who live in a community with higher levels of substance use. Substance use is on the increase in low-income countries which, in the coming decades, will bear a disproportionate burden of substance related disability and premature death (Anderson, 2006).
The government of Nigeria reported increase in cannabis cultivation, while no estimates of output. Nigeria trafficking groups are among the largest trafficking organizations involved in heroin trafficking to the United States. Large amounts of cocaine, cannabis from Nigeria are smuggled to Europe (United Nation Drugs Control Programmes,(UNDCP 1995 and UN, 2004) The most frequent abused drugs are cannabis, heroin, cocaine, benzodiazepine and alcohol, about eighty percent of the drug consumer were youths between 18 and 30 years of age (Onyebe 1998).
Research findings have established that people abuse substances such as drugs, alcohol, and tobacco for varied and complicated reasons and the specific drug (or drugs) used varies from country to country and from region to region. Worldwide, the five main drugs of abuse are Cannabinoids, Stimulants, Hallucinogens and other compounds, Opiods and Morphine Derivatives and Depressant. Studies have shown that effects of drug addiction manifest physically, physiologically, and socially through the behaviour of drug addicts in society (National Institute on Drugs Abuse (NIDA, 2008). It is important to note that dependence on psychoactive substances is widely prevalent, cutting across age, class and gender, but it is difficult to estimate the number of drug addicts or formulate a comprehensive approach to deal with the problem primarily because it involves a "hidden population" that does not seek treatment. Hence, it is difficult to assess the problem, estimate its costs (social and economic), and design reliable intervention strategies for it. ( NIDA, 2008).
In the case of Nigeria, Substance abuse and addiction is becoming increasingly widespread and a substantial percentage of the national budgetary health allocation is utilized for treatment and rehabilitation of people with substance use problems (Emma. 2004); (UNDCP, 2000). The various reports of rapid situation assessments of drug abuse and addiction in the country showed a picture of widespread consumption of cannabis (10.8%), followed by psychotropic substances (mainly the benzodiapines and amphetamine-type stimulants) 10.6%, and to a lesser extent heroin (1.6%) and cocaine (1.4%) in both the urban and rural areas. The use of volatile organic solvents (.053%) was reported as becoming popular, especially among the street children, in-schools, youth and women (NDLEA/UNDCP, 1999). Thus, concerns for the control of drug abuse and addiction have become a major issue. As part of efforts to alleviate the several adverse consequences of use and dependence on drug abuse in societies in Nigeria, governments at various times have allocated substantial public resources for drug treatment, and also formulated policies to contain, the spread of drug use among various segments of non-users of illicit drugs (UNODC, 2010). To achieve effective rehabilitation of drug dependants in the home, workplaces and society in general, drug treatment services are offered through a variety of modalities such as residential and outpatient approach, traditional treatment among herbalists, diviners, and criminal justice system. However, available information on drug abuses and addicts in Nigeria showed that treatment has not been left alone for the government. Over the past few decades some non-governmental organizations have responded with comprehensive strategies to treat and rehabilitate drug-addicts through a multi-disciplinary approach involving preventive education through awareness-creation activities, research, training, treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration, (Steenber, 2001).
The prevalence of drug use and abuse inmost parts of Nigeria especially Northwest and in particular Katsina state, has prompted the researcher to conduct a survey to identify some of the drug substances commonly abused, the factors influencing drug abuse, determine the programmes for the control of these drugs, find out the level of community involvement in the control of these substances, and also assess how well a drug control programme can meet individuals and social needs in Katsina state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The concept of „drug‟ scientifically refers mainly to substances that affect psychological or behavioral functions or leads to varying degrees of dependence or addiction. The manner in which these drugs are used are primarily dependant, on the rational for its application. As far as substances use and abused is concerned, various social, cultural, customs belief and practices have direct influence on the use of substances.
Hearing and experiencing about the cases of substances abuse among youths and adults stimulated the researcher to take the challenges of attempting to find out the various control programmes put in place to curve out the menace of substance abuse in Katsina state. A search of literature shows that in Katsina, little is known about the control programmes on substances abuse, factors influencing the programmes among youths and adults in the state.
Finally, substance abuse control program such as social program, research based program, identify user scheme, supply drugs reduction program intelligence operation and peer education support have been facing problems like inadequate financial supply, poor management poor implementation policies, lack of experienced staff and modern technologies as well as lack of community support
1.3 Research Questions
This study attempted to answer the following research questions to achieve the research purposes:
- What are the factors affecting substance abuse control in Katsina state?
- What are the available substances abuse control programmes operating in Katsina state?
- Is there any effective substance/drug supply reduction program in Katsina state?
- What are the appropriate management measures for drug addicts?
- What is the attitude of communities/societies toward social programs for controlling substance abuse in Katsina state?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to assess the control program of substances use and abuse in Katsina state:
- To find out the factors that influence substance abuse control program in Katsina state;
- To identify the available substance abuse control programs commonly found in Katsina state;
- To find out the effectiveness of substance/drugs supply reduction program through improved and coordinated methods.
- To assess the appropriate management measures for drug addicts Under Identified Drug user scheme (IDU).
- To identify the attitude of communities/Societies towards social program in preventing substance abuse in Katsina state.
- To identify the role community toward improving the existing substance abuse program in Katsina state.
Based on the research questions the following hypotheses are formulated;
- There is no significant difference among respondents different opinion on factors affecting substance abuse control programmes.
- There is no significant difference between male and female respondents on the commonality of abuse control programs commonly found in Katsina state.
- There is no significant difference between respondents educational and their opinions on effectiveness of drug supply reduction programme in Katsina State.
- There is no significant different on the opinion of the respondents with different occupations and management measures against those offenders caught using drugs under identify drug user scheme (IDU) in Katsina state
- There is no significant difference among respondents of different educational background in the opinions between social program and research base prevention programme in Katsina state
1.6 Basic Assumption
Based on the research evidence, the following basic assumptions are made;
- Environmental conditions facilitated the abuse of substance among the people in Katsina state.
- Drug control mechanisms are not effective leading to easy access to substances abuse in Katsina state.
- Various organizations both public and private, including individuals have roles to play in the formation and implementation of substance abuse control programme of which most people in Katsina state are now realizing.
1.7Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this work will help various drug abuse control agencies in identifying ways to curtail the menace of substance abuse among the adolescents of Katsina state irrespective of their ages, status, and gender, in order to have mentally sound individuals for better productivity.
(i) The findings of the study would serve as a means for better understanding of the effects of substance abuse control programme on the society in Katsina state.
(ii) It will help in taking precautionary measures against the illicit use of substances in urban and rural community in Katsina state
(iii) The result of the study will also enlighten the public on the roles to play in the formulation and implementation of policies/ programmes on the control of substance abuse in Nigeria. Also the findings of this study will contribute to the body of knowledge, for students as well as guidance- counselors, teachers, medical personnel, social workers etc.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The purpose of this study was to survey the control programmes on substance abuse among youths and adults in Katsina state. The study was delimited to the boundary of Katsina state; the variables examined were delimited to effectiveness of control programmes on substances abuse, factors influencing substances abuse, status of the community to the progress of the control programmes. Staff member of selected establishments:National Drugs Law enforcement Agent NDLEA, National Agency for Food Drugs Administration and Control NAFDAC, Customs, Immigrations, Prison Service, Factories, some schools and public places like motor Parks were used as subjects in the study; with a view to providing relevant data on drugs abuse and its control programmes.
1.9Limitation of the Study
There are virtually some limitations encountered in the process of conducting the study such as transportation from one local government to another and from one establishment to another. Retrieval of questionnaires from the respondents met some delay, despite the assistance of the officers in charge (Head of Department HODs).
Some respondents had to seek the help of the researcher for explanation or interpretation of some items of the questionnaire. The situation consumed much of researcher‟s time.