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THE CHALLENGES OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN NIGERIA. (A CASE STUDY ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY)
The topic of this research work is challenges of management in Technological Development in Nigeria Aluminium industry was used as case study. The research was divided into five chapters. Chapter one starts by introducing the topic of the study. It goes further to explain why the study is important. Although all companies in Nigeria as a whole make up the study area, however for reason explain therein, the scope in limited to Asaba and also one company Aliminium Manufacturing Company (ALMACO). Limitation that hindered the smooth conduct of the study were also enumerated. Chapter two focuses to what other people, both Nigerians and people of other lands have written about management and technology both problems and challenges there from. It goes further to explain what is written by individuals as constituting the implication of technological tendencies and the need for challenges and also the constraint on technological development in Nigeria. Chapter three treats the research design, area of study, population of study, sample determination, source of data collection and instrument for collecting data. Chapter four is where the data were presented and analyzed under the leading data presentation and analysis therefore acts as the prelude to chapter five which is a very important chapter. Chapter five contains discussion of findings which will explain the out come of the study, what has been found as being problems and challenges posed by technological development in ALUMACO.
Human societies as the develop evolve technique, methods and strategies that enable them master their environment and ensure that survival. To the materials available to than, they apply these techniques, methods and strategies to achieve a mix that optimally serves their need within the limits of their perception. As their awareness increases and new materials are discovered the limits of this perception widen.
Better procedures are found adapting action to circumstances and means to ends. Inevitably, a cidre of people emerge to perpetuate and guarantee the application of these discoveries. Improved techniques for betterment of that society results. This process depicts a unique relationship between three key elements technology, management and development.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Technologies are some of the ways in which a social group provides itself with the materials objects of its civilization. More closely defined, technology is the body of skills knowledge and procedures for making, using and doing useful things the techniques for accomplishing recognized purposes.
By this definition, technology transcends the technical artifacts (machines, factories etc) by which it is often associated and goes on to embrace the simple ways by which primitive cultures tend for themselves as they strive to survive in hostile natural environment. Drucker’s (1968:66) views technology as the craft and science of any organized human activity.
Management will be considered as meaning:
- The process and activity of carrying out the task of ensuring that number diverse activities are performed in such a way that a defined objective is achieved especially the task of creating and maintaining condition in which desired objectives are achieved by the combined efforts of a group of people using limited resources.
- And as the group of people within an organization who are primarily concerned with the management of the activities of that organization.
As a process and activity, management is concerned with the provision, and development of resources be it men, materials or money, as a group of people, it is the institution vested with responsibility, power and authority to perform the tasks implied by the process, such tasks are performed with which the enter price interacts. Within these environments lie the challenges of development and change.
Advance learners dictionary defines development as “the process or state of causing things to grow larger, further or more mature and organized, of unfolding things”. Thus between the fast and present things develop. Development take place, as the present becomes the future.
Development is characterized by change, by a break in continuity, a rearrangement, or break through. Something different emerges and relationships are restructured, demands increase and challenges arise.
Consequently, problems of adjustment are created and attachments to things and phenomena increase.
Derek French and Heather Seqard dictionary of management, (Pan Books Ltd London, 1975) p. 247 Loc. Cit, A.S Hornby et al. Oxford Advanced learners Dictionary of English (ELBS and Oxford University Press, London, 1973:239). Technologies change, methods change, people change and organizations change as human beings try to do things better to grow and to improve. These changes interact with each other and with the environment to produce muse change and developments. Within this general frame work of definitions and delineations, the researcher will find out the implications and challenges of technological development for managers operating within Nigeria.
It must be admitted that even though technology and management have significant universal characteristic individually and in their interrelationships most of their effects have meaning and importance only when considered against particular socio-cultural backgrounds. Technological development and its management necessarily imply different things in Nigeria as distinct form other countries and culture.
The challenges differ and the required managerial action must reflect the environmental conditions.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
To satisfy the inquiring nature of this study the following pertinent questions are posited or asked.
- Does technology require effectively managed organization for its exploitation and perpetuation?
- Is efficient management a prerequisite for technological development in Nigeria?
- Is political instability and inadequate security a hindrance to technological development in Nigeria?
- What are the influences of social, economic and environmental factors on technologies development in Nigeria?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
In reading the importance of the advancement in technology to any organization, the fundamental question that arises is how can an organization be managed so as to tap or exploit this intricate and sophisticated technology. Therefore the aims of this work are;
- To identify the implications of current technological tendencies and needs for management.
- to identify the challenges and problems posed by technological development forNigeriamanagement.
- to identify if any the advancement of management technological development exist inNigeria.
- finally, proffering possible ways in which they could adapt to him in the tight of current conditions and trends.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Research on this topic is virtually like conducting a social research since it involves dealing with people and finding their way of doing things that is how they tackle and handle indicate and sophisticated technology of the research work. It scope covers a wide global range of the country (Nigeria) in pursuance of technological development of aluminium industries.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research work will be limited due to the following constraints.
Time factor: This has been of serious effect on the conduct of this research and this made it in possible to cover the whole Nigeria. Being of course a final year student, the researcher had to short of time at his disposal for the study as he had to combine it with other academic work. In addition to the time factor was inadequate funds which is affecting every body in this country more so, to a student like the researcher.
Financial factor: The success of any research work depends largely on the extent to, which k the work is financed. Due to listed finance, it was impossible for the researcher to carry out his work on all the whole Nigeria.
Uncooperative attitude: The study involved finding out the ingenuity and tactics applied to management from the beginning to their present position for trying to sustain technological advancement in the country. Uncooperative was encountered thereby implied interviewing and finding their problems and how they will be solved.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will provide an opportunity for any manager who is already in the field or who is coming into the field who may read it to appreciate what development in technology is all about, the problems and challenges posed by this technological development for Nigeria management.
Finally, proffering possible solutions to the problems, the acquaintances with all the issues to be raised with all things being equal will ginger the enthusiasm of many more managers in the direction with the consequent favourable chain effect festering rapid development in technology.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Technology: It is the body of skill, knowledge and procedures for making using and doing useful things the techniques for accomplishing recognized purposes.
Management: This is the process and activity of carrying out task of ensuring that a numbers diverse activities are performed in such a way that a defined objectives is achieved.
Development: Is the process or state of causing things to grow longer, further or more mature and organized unfolding things.
Environmental conditions: It is the condition that necessitates a group of functions or the personnel who carry activities out in an environment (organisation to provide autonym to either labour or ownership.