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THE EXTENT OF COMPUTER USAGE AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be viewed in different ways. Rodriguez and Wilson (2000) defined ICT as a set of activities which facilitate by electronic means the processing, transmission and display of information. ESCAP (2000) in its own definition defined ICT as techniques people use to share, distribute, and gather information and to communicate through computers and computer networks. Marcelle (2000) described ICT as a complex varied set of goods, applications and services used for producing, distributing, processing, transforming information (including) telecoms, TV and radio broadcasting, hardware and software, computer services and electronic media. Ogunsola and Aboyade (2005) viewed ICT as a cluster of associated technologies defined by their functional usage in information access and communication of which one embodiment is the internet. Information and Communication Technology are computer based tools used by people to work with information and communication processing needs of an organization. It purview covers computer hardware, software, the network and other digital devices like video, audio, camera and so on which convert information (text, sound, motion etc) into digital form (Moursund and Bielefeldt, 1999). Information and Communication Technology as tools within the school environment include use for school administration and management, teaching and learning of ICT related skills for enhancing the presentation of classroom work, teaching/learning repetive tasks, teaching/learning intellectual, thinking and problem solving skills, stimulating creativity and imagination, for research by teachers and students and as communication tool by teachers and students (Collis and Moonen, 2001, Derbyshire, 2003; Moursund and Bielefeldt, 1999).
The use of ICTs in Nigeria and African countries generally is increasing and dramatically growing. However, while there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being used in developed countries, there is not much information on how ICTs are being introduced into schools in developing countries (Beukes-Amiss and Chiware, 2006). Looking at the developing countries according to these authors, there is generally limited access time per month using ICTs by both the teachers and students, and even less time spent with reliable Internet access. It should be noted that availability of ICTs vis-à-vis access in term of ratio of teachers and students differs significantly. Despite this, the new and emerging technologies challenges the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the way education is managed. While information communication technology is an important area of study in its own right, it is having a major impact across all curriculum areas. Easy worldwide communication provides instant access to vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills (Fowowe, 2006). Rapid communication plus increased access to ICTs in the home, at work, and in educational establishment, could mean that learning becomes a truly lifelong activity- an activity in which the pace of technological change forces constant evaluation of teaching process itself.
The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching and research (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits of ICT in improving quality of education (AL-Ansari, 2006). As a result of this, developed nations have integrated ICT into their educational system. Adomi and Kpangban (2010) observed that there are developments in the Nigerian education sector which indicate some level of ICT application in secondary schools in Nigeria. They traced the introduction of computer education in secondary schools to 1988, when Nigeria government enacted a policy on computer education. The Federal Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on education 2004 recognizes the prominent role of ICTs in the modern world and has integrated ICTs into education in Nigeria (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010). To actualize this goal, the document states that government will provide basic infrastructure and training at the primary school. At the junior secondary school, computer education is made a pre-vocational elective and is a vocational elective at the senior secondary school.
Successful integration of ICT in the school system depends largely on the availability and competence and the attitude of teachers towards the role of modern technologies in teaching and learning. Research works have shown that most secondary schools have either insufficient or no ICT tools to cater for the ever increasing population of students in the schools and where they are available, they are by implication a matter of out-of-bounds to the students (Chattel, 2002; Cheng, 2003; Chiemeke, 2004). Fakeye (2010) also found out in a study carried in Ibadan that in most of schools covered in the study do not have computers, hence are not connected to the internet. He added those who have computers do not use them for teaching but solely for administrative purposes. In another study by Okwudishu (2005), he found out that the unavailability of some ICT components in schools hampers teachers’ use of ICTs. Lack of adequate search skills and of access points in the schools were reported as forces inhibiting the use of internet by secondary school teachers (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The adoption and use of ICT in secondary schools in Nigeria is still under a serious dilemma despite the dramatic increase in the use of ICTs in numerous areas in present days including education. The low rate in the adaptation and application of the new technology especially in the public schools is attributed to several factors which include inadequate ICT facilities in the schools, poor ICT policies, limited information infrastructures, poor perceptions of using ICT in education among teachers, students and the school administrators. In spite of the calls and yearnings for change from the teacher centered learning to student-centered learning which involve the use of ICT resources, chalkboard and text books are still the most continuously dominant class room facilities in virtually all the public post primary institutions in Nigeria (Okebukola, 1997).
The compelling usage of ICT in instruction and learning relies on upon the accessibility of these facilities and the educators’ capability in utilizing them. Observation has shown that there are limited functional ICT facilities in most Nigeria public schools especially those in the rural areas. This in turn hinders the urge to use them by the students for learning. Also lack of adequate computer literate from the site of instructors, sporadic power supply and insufficient financial support are another set of deterrent militating against successful usage of ICT facilities and resources in government owned institutions. For that reason, government need to provide enough ICT resources and to train teachers on the effective utilization of the available facilities it their teaching process in order to solve the problem Ajayi (2008).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the extent to which computer usage among schools teachers and students in Oyo state, specifically the study intends to;
1. Find out how exposed the students and teachers are exposed to ICT
2. Find out the effectiveness of computer usage in the performance of both teachers and students
3. Examine the challenges of using ICT in senior secondary schools
1.4 Research Question
1. How exposed the students and teachers are exposed to ICT?
2. How effective is computer usage on the performance of both teachers and students
3. What are the challenges of using ICT in senior secondary schools
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant effect of computer usage on the performance of both teachers and students
Hi: there is significant effect of computer usage on the performance of both teachers and students
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work will expose the teacher, students and other educational stakeholders to the importance of using ICT tools to enhance learning among secondary school students. This research will also be of significance to school management in both public and private schools so as to expose their students to computer both in the primary and secondary level.
Finally the research will serve as a guide and reference points for other researchers and students that will embark on the same research on computer usage in secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study