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THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE, (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA AGIP OIL COMPANY LTD WARRI)
This study examines the impact of training and development on workers performance in organization. Training and development are the central elements of human resources management and the principal vehicle for developing skills and abilities of workers other than through job assignments. Training serves as a motivational factor and a form of job security to workers. The questionnaire and library research were used to collect data and the simple percentage population was seventy-nine (79) from these three banks: Union Bank, Unity Bank, First Bank. The simple percentage method was used to analyze data collected. This revealed that through training ad development, workers performance can be improved and productivity increased. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that there should be regular training for workers, and organizations should see training as a profitable investment, and appropriate training techniques should be employed. Adequate training of workers is essential in order to meet new technological trend. Training should also be done as regular intervals in various units of the organization in order to meet the set objectives.
1.1 Background of the Study
In the last few decades, the concern for the training and development of employees in an organisation has made itself felt in almost every face of human endeavour. The importance of training and development of employees to organizational effectiveness can not be over emphasized.
Time and again, organizational objective has been profit maximization which leads to a significant growth and this is achieved through effective and efficient utilization of its resources (i.e. manpower and material resources).
Manpower is the controlling and guiding component of any organization. Also, manpower is seen as a dynamic strategy of improving the performance or efficiency of people through well integrated and systematic teaching – learning processes aimed at meeting individual as well as organizational objectives, and thus, facilitating a continuous positive response for purposeful change.
The definition was based on four basic assumption that Human Research Development is:
(a) People development oriented (improvement in values, perception, attitude and behavioural patterns),
(b) Performance oriented (increase in productivity of staff for organisation goal achievement).
(c) Personal needs oriented (guaranteeing psychological and physiological requirements of the individuals).
(d) Organizational development oriented (crucial for effecting maintenance of both task and procedural direction).
Organisation of the other hand, is a social units or human grouping deliberately constructed to achieve a specific goal or objective Etizioni (1975). It is in recognition of this fact that the concern of most personnel management is to make their employees management is to make their employees contribute effectively towards the attainment of the organizational set objectives.
Management therefore looks for ways of improving the quality of employee through training and development. With the view to increase their productivity and performance.
This therefore, brings into focus the importance of training and development as one aspect of organizational goals. In carrying out this study, distinction is made between training and development.
According to Nwachukwu (1988), training is organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skill required for the efficient execution of the function for which he was hired.
Behomley (1988) also sees “Training as the acquisition of knowledge and skill relevant to job performance”. Since training has to do with adjusting (restructuring) the workers attitude and skill, and this have direct influences on organizational ability to carryout specific job, it could reduce cost as it increase productivity, increases employees turnover and promotes goals congruency.
The change in technology, and work processes is a basic fact that is very well acknowledged by managers, and therefore, follows that the skills and knowledge which were useful yesterday may be obsolete today.
Lack of training may increase absenteeism rates, low output and poor quality job performance which might result in high unit cost. Hence, when the need for training has been determined, the organization will in turn state clearly the objective which the training programme is expected to achieve. While development as seen by Todaro (1985) defined development as “a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty”.
Everett Rogers says “It is a type of social change in which new ideas are introduced into a social system in order to produce higher per capita incomes and levels of living through more modern production methods and improved social organisation”.
Bohomley (1988) sees it as the changes in attitude and behaviour which tends to enhance employee commitment and performance.
Nwachukwu (1988) also states that “Development deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume positions of importance in the organizations hierarchy”.
Madlers (1974), view on the concept “Development of employees means preparing the employees so that he/she can move with the organisation as it develops”.
Thus, the importance of qualified manpower in social, political and economic development of an organisation cannot be over looked. There is no gain saying that, countries likeJapan,Germanyand Italy etc are said to have attained high level of economic growth and development as a result of their well developed manpower.
Therefore manpower development section of organisation is in the area of training activity which will enhance the abilities, skills, motives and attitudes of employees in order to improve their performance.
Also, it helps to prepare them for future managerial responsibilities. The emphasis placed by any organisation on the training and development of its employees is basically on productivity.
Most importantly to note, however, is that low productivity could also be traced to poor morale of employees at work place, faulty equipments and low quality raw materials (i.e. material inputs).
Human resources is, however, the most important and most costly resources of an organisation and since it is necessary that this research contribute effectively to organizations objectives through improved performances, there is therefore the need for training and development to be undertaken as a research study.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
“Training is an organizational effort aimed at helping employee to acquire basic skill needed to enable them perform a given task effectively and efficiently”. Newton (1974).
Arising from research, it is the aim of the study, to know, why most business organizations inNigeriaare reluctant to engage or encourage their employees to take part in training and development programme despite the perceived benefits.
However, there is one or more problems with the concept of effective training and development in many organizations. They are the effect and impact of training and development on employees performance.
In same cases, experience in organisation shows that most employees undergo one or two trainings, but yet fail to perform to the expected standard set by the organisation.
In other cases, employees are trained but when faced with the actual work situation, could not adequately know their left from right.
Finally, some trained employee are fixed with content of quality but are being directed to the wrong trainer, inadequate training facilities and problem of evaluation (appraisal) the stand clearly and obsteries that need to be handle.
The question at hand is; how and what should organizations do to ensure improved performance after training? To which level in the organizations do this training lay much emphasis? How important is this training and development to existing and starting organisation?
This is therefore, the concern of this research.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the importance of training and development to organizational performance. This project is undertaken to ascertain how the programme of the organisation (company) are carried out in order to help contribute to the improvement in job performance of its employees.
This will enable the organisation to determine the importance and effectiveness of a training programme. However, in pursuance of this objectives of the study includes the followings:
- To determine how training and development increases an employees morale in the attainment of organizational goals.
- To examine how training and development of employees can increase employees performance motivation and satisfaction.
- To identify how training and development will result to behavioural change for increase productivity.
- To ascertain how training and development will enhance removal or minimization of performance deficiencies and poor work quality.
- To explain how training and development will ensure increased ability to cope with new technological demand on jobs.
1.3 Research Question
For the effectiveness of this research, this study intended to answer the following research questions:
- To what extent do training and development enhances employees performance and satisfaction in an organisation, and behavioural change for increase in productivity?
- To what extent do training and development ensure increase ability of employees to cope with new technological demands on job?
- Do training and development enhance removal or maximization of performance deficiencies and poor work quality?
- How does training and development increase employees morale in the attainment of organization goals?
1.4 Significance of the Study
This project will be useful to current and future managers.
The importance of training and development of employees to organizational performance is one of the most frequently discussed concepts in the face of business performance and it is also one of the main concern of personnel management in all organizations.
The knowledge obtained in the study will enable them know how to structure their training and development programmes, so as to suit the employees and the attainment of the organizations goals and objectives. The knowledge on the importance of employees performance would help managers to attain higher training level.
Thus, it is expected that at the end of this study, various business organizations may use the ideas here in after to formulate policies that will enhance the growth and development of the societal economy.
It will also be useful to other researchers in the field (area) of personnel management.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research covers employees training and development in organization. The study examines those aspects of activities, managers need to look out for in order to determine the training needs in the organisation. it also highlights those functional areas of business in the organisation that requires more personnel development and why.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
This study has been limited by certain factors; these include finance, inadequate material and time.
The finance available to carryout this is not enough. This factor poses a lot of limitations to this project work or study.
There are inadequate material for this work, which made it difficult to lay hands on adequate material to suit the work as required.
The time frame was not enough to actually carryout this research work in which case a great numbers of areas that would have been examined are left untouched due to lecturers and same time carrying out of this project work.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
For the effective and efficient of this work and proper achievement of the objectives and goals of this project, the following terms should be defined;
- Training: This is the organizations conscious effort to improve the skills of the workers or employees on a particular job or task by providing him with additional knowledge and it has to do with improving on the capacity of organizational effectiveness.
- Job Performance: This is the accomplishment of various tasks assigned to an employee by his/her superior and that result for the training and development given to employees of the organization.
- Management: This is a group of people within an organisation, who are primarily concerned with the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the activities in an organisation for the attainment of set goals and objectives.
- Personnel: These are persons (workers) employed in an organization for a service. They constitute the work force in (of) organisation.
- Motivation: This refers to an inner state of mind that energizes, activities, move, direct or channel behaviour towards goals. It concerns with the “why” of human behaviour.
- Productivity: Productivity as used in this write-up refers to input resulting from a given resources output-input at a given time. It has to do with reaching the high level of performance with the least expenditure of resources.
- DEVELOPMENT: This is a long term educational process of utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees gain the conceptual and theoretical knowledge of the assumptions of positions of importance in the organizational hierarchy.