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THE IMPLICATION OF EMPLOYEE’S PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING, IN ORGANIZATIONS PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MR. BIGGS FAST FOOD UGHELLI DELTA STATE).
This study is on the implication of employees’ particiupation in decision making in organization productivity. This is the process that employees and employer into into in other to increase the overall efficiency of production of the organization. The objective of the study is to asses the implication of employees participation on organization productivity in the organization with reference to Mr. Biggs fast food restaurant Ughelli Delta State. The population of the study is the entire work force d which where graded into senior intermediate and junior staff respectively. And out of the entire population of 37 workers a sample size of 24 d which where graded into senior intermediate and junior staff respectively. And out of the entire population of 37 workers a sample size of 24 respondents were selected out using a simple random procedure. Also the questionnaire used for data collection was validated by the project supervisor before being administered to the respondents and data collected were analyzed using the simple percentage method. Findings from data obtained reveals that employees’ participation in decision making is a major of moral and job satisfaction in an organization and it also serve as a training ground to help build a crop of future leaders for the organization. Therefore it was recommended that management should provide a climate conducive enough for effective employee participation in decision. And finally the study suggests that similar study be carried out for example the effect of training and development on employees job performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
During the last decades, many organizations were attracted to various employees’ participation or involvement schemes, as numerous scholars advocated their benefits.
As a consequence, employee’s participation, commitment, involvement and empowerment have all become familiar buzzwords of 1990s. However, participative management schemes such as quantify circles, team work and total quality management do not always live up to the expectation of management and employee, and are strongly enticed by some commentators.
By examining the main concepts of employee participation and some of the reasons why employees are adopting such scheme. It can be demonstrated that employee’s participation or involvement is a permanent phenomenon (Marchington et al 1993) and that the criticisms only highlight the need for better organization short-term business strategies, aimed at boasting organizational productivity.
Although employee participation or involvement (EI) is not a new management concept, it has only recently seen a revival in population support along with the concomitant rise in Human Resource management (HRM), since HRM seeks to regard the employees as an asset that can be invested in through further training and development. It is argued that involving them (Employees) in decision making can only enhance employee motivation, commitment and performance.
Decision making is however, one of the most Germane activity of management. It has been the preoccupation of all management of multifarious organization ranging from small scale organization to multinational corporations. Managers, many at times consider decision making to be the Heart of their job, in that they must always choose what is to be done, who will do it, when, where and most times how it will be done.
Moreover, Lawler (1986) point out that if people at all level of an organization manage their own work, then they will find their job more rewarding. He continues to argue that this can result in high quality product and reduced labour cost since fewer employees are required. In fact Lawle is not alone with this point of view; Peter and Kanter also promote a similar message and support it with business stories (Peter and Waterman 1982, Kanter 1983).
Consequently, with the prospect of productivity gains, in increasing competitive international market, many organizations were keen to adopt participative management schemes during the early 1980s. Also, at the same time, many course on participative management appeared, providing low-cost, turnkey approaches for management (Prinele, 1989, Quoted in Nykodzin 1994; Lawler 1985).
However, in the United Kingdom (UK) this shift in management style, with a new emphasis on communication with direct involvement of employees was also regarded as a response to the recession of the early 1980s. Furthermore, the UK has been experiencing increase competition from various countries, including France Germany and Japan, which further exposed the weaknesses in British Working practices, output and productivity (Holden 1994: 562). Additionally, the Japanese management uses decisions making by consensus in which lower level employee initiate the idea and submit it to the next higher-level unit, till it reaches the desk of the top executive. If the proposal is approved, it is returned to the initiator for implementation.
It is in this context that this research study is centred on assessing THE IMPLICATION OF EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA public and private sector organization using Mr BIGGS AS CASE STUDY.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There has been a lot of controversy as to whether an employee should participate in managerial decision making or not. Some writers argued that employees should contribute in making decision, more especially where it affect them or their jobs. This allows them in the involvement approach to offer ideas regarding the job, until a decision is reached. It is expected that such involvement will serve as training and testing ground for future members of upper management.
In Nigeria, experts refuted the assertion; they see the arrangement as the system of mal-organization. They maintained that qualified, reasonable, honest and company oriented individual are not available at this level/or lower organizational level. But the big question is; are qualified individuals really available at this level? All this and many more undelay the need for an investigation study.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this empirical study is to assess the implication of employee’s participation in decision making on organizational productivity in both the public and private sector organization in Nigeria, with reference to Mr. BIGGS FAST FOOD UGHELLI DELTA STATE.
THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ARE AS FOLLOWS
- To examine the implications of employees participation in decision making on productivity of the organization.
- To determine whether involving employee in decision making process in an organization will bring about increased productivity.
- To establish whether employee participation will serve as training and testing ground for further upper management.
- To ascertain the impact or implication of employee participation on job satisfaction.
- To determine the extent of which employee can participate in decision making in an organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the implications of employees participation in decision making on productivity of organization?.
2. How do employee participation in decision making impacts on the organizations productivity?
How does employee’s participation in decision making in the organization impact on their job satisfaction?
4. In what ways could employee’s participation in decision making help to build future leader for organization?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Taking into account or having in mind the changes in our today’s business world (Information and technology changing the way people work), this research work was carried out in hope that, it will appeal and equip managers of Banks, captains of industries, Entrepreneurs running small scale business etc. with the rudimentary requirement to remain relevant in business for as long as it takes.
It is also hope that, this research work will be a student delight, at the same time provide an excellent frame work for Government, Academicians, potential and future researchers on this issue of employs participation in managerial decision as well.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Mr. BIGGS which of course is a House hood name in Nigeria toady has numerous branches in almost every major city and towns of its states (Nigeria). But to avoid the adverse effect of money, time and other constrains which is embedded in any wide scope of study. For that reason, the research activities shall be narrow down to Mr BIGGS Ughelli to effectively evaluate the implications of employee participation as boast to productivity in Nigeria public and private sector organization.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
A task or work of this nature is not easy to accomplish without some draw-back, such as: financial problem, time constrain, security on the part of the managers/or executives and bureaucratic procedures involve in releasing data to mention a few; all of which were limitation of the study.
Below are break down analysis of how each of the aforementioned affected the study.
- 1. BUREAUCRATIC PROBLEM
This is the official rules and ways of doing things in an organization, which become too complicated and made the research work difficult in terms of having access to necessary information.
- 2. FINANCIAL PROBLEM
For a developing economy like Nigeria, research work is still at the developmental stage, which means survival due to lack of funds to sponsor research activities, which also pose as a limiting factor to this research work.
- 3. SECURITY
Individuals dislike activities that appear like nosing around or seem to be probing them. Even in Government offices, there are many secret files that hide information that are otherwise be for public consumption, eg. Such question as how many years have you been in this office/or company
- 4. TIME CONSTRAIN
A research activity is a difficult and time consuming process, of which the time available for this research work was almost not enough.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. PRODUCTIVITY: The measure of how well resources are brought together in an organization and utilized for accomplishment of set goals i.e the effective use of factors of production to produce goods and services.
2. EFFICIENCY: Ability of doing something well within the stipulated time and resources.
3. DECISION MAKING: The selection from among alternatives of a course of action.
4. TRAINING: An organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the efficient execution of activities function for which he is hired.
5. DEVELOPMENT: The activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume position of importance in an organization.
6. MANAGEMENT Getting things done through people. It is the guidance or direction of people towards the achievement of organization goals and objectives.
7. MICROMANAGEMENT: A management style where a manager closely observes or controls the work of his or her subordinates or employees.