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THE IMPLICATION OF JOB EVALUATION ON STIMULATING ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT BOARD ASABA)
This research was carried out to take a thorough look at the important of job evaluation in an organization with the Delta State Hospitals management Board, Asaba as the case study. The purpose of this study is to determine the important of job evaluation in determine jobs that are monetary value on the jobs. The research work is made of five chapters which deal with the various sections that make up the study. This is the introduction of the research work the statement of problem, research question and objective of the study, the significance of the study, the limitation of the study, the scope of the study and definition of terms.
In chapter two talk about critical review of existing literature by other authors was done in the area of the study thus, view of other authors were put forward to enhance easy understanding of the study. Chapter three is the necessary data. A sample of one hundred (100) members of management of the staff (management committee) that responded to the questionnaire distributed the presentation and analysis of data was dealt with in chapter four. The hypothesis postulated in chapter one was tested here and also the data were of the research, and finally, chapter five is the observation from the findings, the summary, recommendations and conclusion. The findings of the research on job evaluation helps management to deter mine those jobs that are important in the organization as a majority of respondents are in favour of this. Also the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected while the alternative hypothesis (H1) was accepted from the findings and limitation of this study the researcher made some recommendations and also summary of the work.
1.1 BACKROUND OF THE STUDY
Evaluation is the process of finding or deciding the amount or value of something. A job is a piece of work either to be done or completed. Job Evaluation is important to organization as it helps in placing value on the various jobs within the organization to determine their worth.
Job evaluation is the name given to any activity, which sets out to make a systematic comparison between jobs to assess their relative worth, for the purpose of establishing a rational pay structure in essence, job evaluation aims to advice reliance on arbitrary method pay determination by an organization by reducing an element of objectivity in the way jobs are compared. To enable employees perceives jobs are compared. To enable employees perceive job evaluation method requires at least some basic job analysis in order to provide factual information about the concerned. Nevertheless, as with many other aspects of personnel management, judgment has to exercise in the final analysis.
As Kempner (2002) points out, evaluation methods do depend to some extent on a series of subjective judgments made on the light of concepts like logic, job evaluation techniques is an attempt to minimize the subject element.
The study is on the importance of job evaluation in an organization to management and employees within the organization. It is important to note that the purpose of job evaluation in to produce a defensible ranking of Jobs on which a rational and acceptable pay structure can be built. And this enables salary to be based on the rational estimate of the contribution of individual jobs to the organization as it relates to skills responsibilities, length or training and others. The amount of compensation that an employee gets should reflect the worth of the employee to the organization. This is paid according to his or ability to perform for the organization. In a free racket economy, people place value on their worth and offer it to the highest bidder. So too does the organization need to place value on the services of its employees. There are numbers of important features of job evaluation which need to be recognized at the outset.
- Job evaluation attempts to assess job, not people.
- The standard of job evaluation are relative not absolute.
- The basic information on which job evaluation are made is obtained from job analysis.
- Job evaluation committees utilize concepts such as logic fairness and consistency in their assessment of job.
- Job evaluation is carried out by groups not by individuals.
- There is always some element subjective judgment in job evaluation.
- Job evaluation does not determine pay scales but merely provides the evidence on which they may be advised
Most organization use the following three factors to determine the salary employees should earn for their services, there are worth of the Job, performance and supply of labour. Hospital Management Board is an establishment of the Delta State Government and is responsible for health care service in Delta State. Due to this fact, the Board employs workers of different profession, category and walk and as a result has to use job evaluation to determine salary structure. Job evaluation is a job grading scheme within the organization and this is used for compiling salary scale, engaging workers to set training scheme for pay roll work and estimate cost and budgetary control. It must start with job analysis, job description and job specification.
The research work will look at the various types of methods employed by management in evaluation jobs that enable them compare the worth of one job in relation to one another and also that makes employers perceive such methods as equitable. They are analytical and non analytical methods.
A. Analytical methods
i. Factor comparison
ii. Point rating
B. Non analytical methods
i. Job ranking
ii. Job grading or job classification
The primary difference between these two categories is that the non analytical methods breaks job down into their components parts and then compare by factor.
The implication is that analytical methods provide a more defined means of measurement than noon analytical methods. This point is particularly important for equal pay legislation, since only analytical schemes are considered to provide an acceptance means of identifying ‘work equal’
It will also focus on some of the key point of jobs evaluation to the organization. These include assessing the job not the individual (i.e.) the worth of the job evaluation is done by the evaluation committee made up of employee’s members of union. Also that job evaluation alone cannot determine pay scale but provide a basis for making decision about pay because such factor like, inflation is considered in setting scale.
Finally, that there is always some element of subjectivity in job evaluation because objective in job evaluation because objective decision alone about the worth of the job is not enough job evaluation differs from performance evaluation, which is the process of determining how well employees are doing on their job. Job evaluation does not review an employee within a position to the organization. Through this process employee with less worth to the organization are paid less than those in position for more worth to the organization. And because of this employees tend perceive wages difference as equitable.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The following have been identified as the research problem;
I. How are bench mark job identified in their organization within the industry.
II. Can management explain and defined the particular method, the method chosen to employee
- How does employee view the classification of their jobs into specific ranks?
- How much information does management need and how do they evaluate the method chosen?
V. To what extend are decision achieved from the evaluation method used?
- Does management achieve its organizational objective of staffing through job evaluation?
Job evaluation gives rise to the above mentioned problems and the research will proffer through which solution to those problems can be achieved.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The following are the objectives of carrying out this research.
- To determine why management rate some jobs higher than others.
- Determination of the evaluation technique management uses in evaluation the growth of jobs.
- Whether job evaluation leads to decrease the efficiency of these employees with less valuable jobs.
- If employers and employees see job evaluation processes in the same light.
Job evaluation is in recent time causing problems in the labour industry especially among professionals who claim that they are equal in the organization this is as a result of the fact that they will want to be paid as much as the others because they assume that all of them have passed through the same rigorous training in their different field of specialization.
These researches will enables us realize that organization on places worth on the jobs that they perceive are important to differential in an organization depends on the area of operation and line of business of the organization.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTION
The underline questions are to be asked to carry out the research to facilitate easy investigation of the problems.
- Dose improper job evaluation lead to problems?
- How dose job employees see the method of job evaluation used?
- How dose management determine that one job is more important or valuable to the other in the organization?
- What yardstick dose management employ in deciding of the management in job evaluation matters?
1.5. STATEMENT OF HYPOTHENSIS
The research has formulated the following hypothesis.
It. The use of job evaluation helps management to determine jobs that are more important to the organization.
Ho. The use of jobs evaluation does not help management determine jobs that are more important to the management.
1.6. SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this research work will be focused on the Delta state hospital management Board, Asaba.
1.7. SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The researcher believe that at the end of this study, that findings and recommendations will be available to both management and employees alike. The significance includes the following;
- It will be useful to management and employees of organization in the process of job evaluation.
- Creating the awareness of the importance of job evaluation to organizations.
- To accelerate the worth of job evaluation in determine on the organization.
- To bring to employees the importance of job evaluation in the organization.
- How improper job evaluation can be avoided through the use of the right methods job evaluation.
For this research work, the researcher will make use of both primary and secondary source in gathering relevant information while the primary data will be collected from questionnaire and interview from the Delta state hospital management board, Asaba.
The secondary data will be on existing literatures the researcher will make use of the chi-square for the evaluation of data gathered on the course of the research work to test their hypothesis formulated.
1.9. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
No matter how someone is prepared to work and even though all the tools are at someone disposal, there is bound to be problem along the line of research work like this. It will be improper on the part of the research if it failed to identify some of these problems. One of such problem is the constraint at the disposal of the researcher. The time given for this research work is short academic session
There is also financial constraint, which is the most important in any undertaken. Another encountered by the researcher is in the area of literature review. Even though the research topic light, the means to get relevant materials were difficult. This is as result of non availability of materials and even those from on the library were not modern publication. In the course of distributing and collecting the questionnaire, the researcher faced problems from respondents as they asked a lot of question before accepting the questionnaires. And also not all the questionnaires were returned and some people were unwilling to give out information. As a result of this it was difficult for the researcher to collect large proportion of questionnaire.
1.10. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms have been defined to facilitate easy understanding of this research work.
Job evaluation: This is set of method design to compare job systematically with a view of assigning their relative worth.
Job analysis: this term use to describe a process of examining jobs in order to identify their main features, in particular the duties they fulfill, the result. They are expected to achieve, the major task undertaken and jobs relationship with other jobs on the organizational hierarchy.
Job specification: this are the qualifications required for successful job performance including level of education, field of concentration an experience.
Management: these are those that make policies and decision for the smooth running of the organization.
Job grading scheme: this is a procedure by which salaries are worked out first before engaging or selecting staff and it is the result of job evaluation.
Analytical method: break jobs down into their component parts and then compare them factor by factor.
Non analytical method: take whole job, compare them and rank them.
Factor comparison: this method allocate monetary sum to factors such as mental requirement, responsibilities and work conditions.
Point rating: it breaks each factor into degrees or levels, which are allocation points in accordance with an agreed weighting.
Job ranking: the basic process of job ranking is to select a representative sample of jobs (also called bench marks), prepare basic job description for them compare them on basis of information in the job description and ranking them in other of their perceived importance.
Job classification: this establishes the relationship between jobs and slots them into predetermined groups.
Performance evaluation: this is the process through management of an organization assess the quality of work of its employees and attempts to improve all their performance.
Wage mix: this has to do with the wages or salaries paid to all categories of workers in the organization.
Bench mark job: they are jobs that contain standardized and identifiable characteristics which pay rate.
Evaluate committees: this is made up of group people that come together to evaluate jobs. They include union member management and employees and sometimes members of staff that are experienced