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THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON CONFLICT MEDIATION IN MODERN DAY ORGANIZATION [A CASES STUDY OF SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (SPDC) WARRI]
The research work is on "The Role of leadership style on conflict mediation in modern day organization" the focus is on how leadership style is used to mediate in conflict situation. Questions raised include what are the various types of conflict in modern day organization? Do leadership styles play any role on conflict mediation in an organization? What are the various types of leadership style used in an organization? Where are the available conflict management techniques for organization use? What are the role and effect of conflict on organization? A well structured questionnaire was developed to elicit information. A total of 120 respondents were chosen for the research from Shell Development Corporation, Warri, Delta State. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. Some of the findings are; employees are satisfied with their job. The organization is not free from conflict. This was shown in their response to the questions asked. It was also revealed that conflict are effectively managed in the organization and that organization does not invite neutral outsiders to mediate when there is a conflict in the organization. It concluded that there is no one best way to deal with conflict in an organization. Based on this, it was recommended that management should put in place mechanism that will help to promote industrial harmony. Employees should be aware of the conflict mediation procedures adopted in the organization. Employee should be treated fairly. Employee should be allowed to express their feelings without fear of losing their job. Provision should be made for employees to contribute in decisions that affect them in the organization.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Among the many predominant occurrences in organization both in the developing and developed world today are, organization conflict and strike action. They are phenomena that leave impact on the affected organization and on the nation as a whole. Thus, their occurrence, re-occurrence and effect on the different organization and the economy cannot be overlooked.
Organization conflicts usually develop as a result of felt dissatisfaction by any of the parties in an organization which if not expediently corrected could result into strike action.
In any economy where organization conflicts are treated carefully and leadership styles and thus not allowed to develop into strike, would pave way for steady development. It is expected that a health organization climate will be reflected by the type of leadership style the leader will adopt by complete harmony in working relation, loyalty and common commitment towards the goals of the organization as a “happy family” is perhaps a worthwhile and creditability ideal, and as such appears to be implied by a number of management writers for example Drencher made the following statement “Any business enterprise must build a true team and wield individuals effort into a common effort. Each member of the firm contributes towards the common goals. Their effort must all fall in the same direction and their contribution must fit in together to produce a whole result without gaps, friction and duplication of efforts.
The effectiveness of leadership style can be measured by the nature of their position in organization to influence the behaviour of formal work group.
Thus leadership styles are not only needed in business environment but also in any organization where people relate in group whether public or privately.
Conflict between individual or group are universal phenomenon. A better understanding of conflict mediation will help management to effectively use the appropriate leadership style more effectively in the conflict organization in other to enhance the organizational growth. Failure to be concerned about conflict mediation management and the appropriate leadership style can be detrimental to the organization since ignoring it, it will make the work and interpersonal relation among workers to deteriorate. If this occurs employee will have little motivation to work together and organization effectiveness will have to suffer.
While conflict mediation is one of the most prevalent issues in organization, it has been one of the least discussed among managers and staff developers because of ineffective leadership style. It is in view of this that the researcher intend to explore more research on effective leadership style and conflict mediation which he believes, will eventually lead him/her to make viable recommendations for a more efficient and effective regulation and settlement of organization conflict, better management of strike, leadership style and a successful operation of the corporation and other similar corporation in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Any organization that dominated by conflict cannot survive from the background of this study and must have an effective leadership style and conflict mediation before the organization can move forward. It can be deduced that conflict is something that is endemic in an organization since the interdependent nature of the organization makes parties to work out relationships across boundaries and since each party has it’s own interest. Then conflict mediation is unavoidable. The inevitability of conflict is due to the fact that different parties in the organization have different interest that lead to conflict which is resolved through conflict mediation.
The improper use of leadership style in an organization can cause conflict in the organization and also ineffective use of conflict mediation. It is in view of this that the study is intended to look at the role of leadership style, types of leadership styles, causes, effect, types and management of conflict in modern day organization by using Shell Petroleum Development Commission as a case study.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In the light of the aforementioned problems, this research work is set out to achieve the following objectives.
- To identify if leadership style plays any role on conflict mediation in an organization.
- To identify the types of conflict in modern day organization.
- To identify the various types of leadership styles used in an organization.
- To examine the various conflict management techniques in an organization.
- To look at the role, effect of conflict in an organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- Does leadership style play any role on conflict mediation in an organization?
- What are the various types of conflict in modern day organization?
- What are the various types of leadership style used in an organization?
- What are the available conflict management techniques for organization’s use?
- What are the roles and effects of conflict on organization?
1.5 HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION
Looking at the objectives above, the researcher has adduced the following hypothesis, the validity of which he intends to test based on data collected.
Ho: Leadership style does not affect the relationship of employees in the organization.
Hi: Leadership style affects the relationship of employee in the organization.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership style and conflict mediation in the organization.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between leadership style and conflict mediation in the organization.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research will be carried out in Shell Petroleum Development Commission Ogunu Warri Delta State. In the course of the study, questionnaire shall be restricted to various categories of workers in the company. Also to be covered in the study, are such issues of life, the causes of conflict in the organization, the role of leadership styles in an organization, the effect of conflict, types and how conflict can be managed, reduced in the organization.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this research study will assist the government, management of private and public companies, institution in deciding how to tackle problem that could stir up the various types of conflict mediation and leadership style. And also improve on the control mechanism of conflict they already have in place.
Further more, it will also serve as a source of reference to future researchers in the area of study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Problems are often encountered in all human endeavours in the search for information required to carryout this work, one cannot but help to appreciate the problems of data collection.
- The first problem encountered by the researcher was time: Due to the shot duration of the semester, it was not an easy task combining classrooms activities with going to the field to collect materials for research work.
- Another problem encountered was the reluctant attitude of the management of Shell Petroleum Commission in allowing the researcher to carry out the research in the organization.
- Closely associated with the above, was the attitude of respondent were skeptical of the research’s intention and refused to co-operate with her. The attitude of the respondent can been seen from, that some of them did not return the questionnaire given to them and this further reduced the sample size.
- Finally there was a problem of finance, the researcher in collecting data for the study, spent a lot of money as a result of high cost of transportation form Ozoro to Warri. Cost of materials to bring this project work to a conclusive standard was equally exorbitant, especially at this period of economic crunch.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined as they are used in the study.
- ORGANIZATION: An organized structure comprising of a group of people who work together.
- MANAGEMENT: Management is a dynamic process of tools of getting things done through others. This is achieved through planning, organizing, coordinating, motivating.
- ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT: This refers to disagreement over objectives, interest and ideas as they relate to the functioning of the organization.
- COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWN
A disruption stoppage in the flow of communication between workers in an organization.
Moral is defined as the trust for confidence which the individual has for himself in his ability to carry out organizational function assigned to him.
Benefit in return for a service rendered
This is the process by which individual select, organize and interpret. The imputes from their sense. It also the way worker or person view things in the organization.
This is the process by which individual select, organize and interprets. It is the body of the people who lead a group.
A form whereby disputes may be settled in short of arbitration.
- LEADERSHIP STYLE
This is the style in which a superior adopts in his/her dealings with subordinate under him.