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WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIAN -A STUDY OF PATTERNS OF POLITICAL APPOINTMENTS AND PARTY CONTROL
The purpose of this study examineswomen participation in Nigerian -a study of patterns of political appointments and party control. The population of the study consisted of all the residence of Uyo metropolis. The study adopted Ex-facto design, while random sampling technique was used in selecting 383 respondents. The structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Data collected were analyzed using t-test analysis. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that women participation in Nigerian has much effect on their patterns of political appointments and party control in Nigeria. The study recommended that, support the effective participation of women at all levels of government, especially in leadership. Women need to be provided opportunities to participate by increasing their participation in all levels of governments and providing funding for them to participate in the political process. Election financing was a key concern and expressed as a barrier for seeking elected positions.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERAURE
2.1 Conceptual Literature
The growing debate by scholars and intelligentsia about the role of women in politics globally is an issue that has generated serious controversies than resolving the perceived gender inequalities in terms of participation in politics of nation states, be they advanced or developing. Several arguments have cropped up about the place of women in politics over the years. Thus while the conservative theorists (Arowolo 2010) argue that the actual role of women and in fact, female folks generally ends in the kitchen, the liberalists (Yetunde, 2010; Agbalajobi, 2010 and Erunke, 2009), have variously opined that women‟s political process as those of their male counterparts, and hence, such responsibilities cannot be washed away in the societal scheme of things. Opinions are however divided on whether the role of women is predominantly in the home fronts or whether women can also engage meaningfully in other socio-economic and political activities like their male counterparts, thereby contributing their own quota in the sequence and development of the polity. This and several arguments about the place of women in global vis-à-vis Nigerian politics have constituted a huge problematique in gender discourses as it patterns to the low level of women involvement in politics at whatever level of analysis. This trend of high level inequality on the potential role of women in shaping the direction of politics in the Nigerian society from time immemorial constitutes a broader gender question of this research paper which the authors intend to address.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
- To examine effect of women educational background and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria?
- To examine effect of women marital status and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria
- To examine effect of women resourcefulness and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria
- To examine obstacles faced by Nigerian women their ability to participate in the political sector.
1.4. Research questions
- What is the effect of women educational background and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria?
- What is the effect of women marital status and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria
- What is the effect of women resourcefulness and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria
- What are the obstacles faced by Nigerian women their ability to participate in the political sector.
1.5. Statement of the hypothesis
- There is no significant effect of women educational background and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria?
- There is no significant effect of women marital status and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria
- There is no significant effect of women resourcefulness and their pattern of political appointment and party control in Nigeria
- There is no significant effect of obstacles faced by Nigerian women and their ability to participate in the political sector.
1.6. Significance of the study
This study would be significant to bring to the forefront challenges women continue to face in the participation of Nigerian politics. Agbalajobi (2010) argued that women have been kept in the background politically for years and are underrepresented in other positions of public life in Nigeria. Nigeria has sustained the British form of government that excluded women from all activities, including politics. Despite numerous efforts to improve the situation, women’s lack of education and wealth, aided by the discriminatory laws that have limited women’s access to resources, make it difficult for them to pursue their interests or embark on political agendas (Dauda, 2007).
Economic empowerment and political empowerment in which Nigerian women are encouraged to participate are essential aspects of community development. Nigeria cannot achieve sustainable development if women continue to be disenfranchised orexperience discrimination. Therefore, improving women’s participation in the politicaladministration of the nation and increasing their access to resources such as education,economic resources, and legal protection is not only necessary but is a very important
goal, especially for a less developed country such as Nigeria.
This study has potential for social change when women will be allowed to freely hold public office and seize positions of political power. International organizations need to be employed to institute public policies and actions that would end gender inequality and improve the socioeconomic and legal status of women. A change in values cannotoccur until women are able to participate in government and political affairs and holdpositions of leadership and power (Agbalajobi, 2010).
1.7. Justification of study
One main significance of this study is that when completed, it would serve as a bridge for the gap that have been created between where previous works on this subject area stopped and today and this study would be justified in the sense that it’s finding would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study
1.8 Scope of the study
The scope of the work was delimited to women participation in Nigerian -a study of patterns of political appointments and party control using Uyo metropolis of AkwaIbom State as a case study.
1.9 Definition of terms Study
Political administration:is the political and democratic processes and politicalleadership of Nigeria; for example, the political structures that are in place to conduct the
Equal participation:means that both genders are given the same opportunities,rights, and privileges for public offices, including leadership positions, and the playingfield is said to be fair and level.
Gender relations:are the role and position of males and females in the politicaladministration of Nigeria, including how both genders interact with each other.
Key positions of leadership:include those of women who have been elected tolegislative positions at any level of government, including those who have beenappointed to the State or Federal Executive Councils.